## Defining Half Wave Rectifier

Half-wave rectifiers transform AC voltage to DC voltage. A halfwave rectifier circuit uses only one diode for the transformation.

A halfwave rectifier is defined as a type of rectifier that allows only one-half cycle of an AC voltage waveform to pass while blocking the other half cycle.

### Half Wave Rectifier Circuit

A half-wave rectifier is the simplest form of the rectifier and requires only one diode for the construction of a halfwave rectifier circuit.

A halfwave rectifier circuit consists of three main components as follows:

- A diode
- A transformer
- A resistive load

**Given below is the half-wave rectifier diagram:**

### Working of Half Wave Rectifier

In this section, let us understand how a half-wave rectifier transforms AC into DC.

- A high AC voltage is applied to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The obtained secondary low voltage is applied to the diode.
- The diode is forward biased during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and reverse biased during the negative half cycle.
- The final output voltage waveform is as shown in the figure below:

For better understanding, let us simplify the half-wave circuit by replacing the secondary transformer coils with a voltage source as shown below:

For the positive half cycle of the AC source voltage, the circuit effectively becomes as shown below in the diagram:

When the diode is forward biased, it acts as a closed switch. But, during the negative half cycle of the AC source voltage, the equivalent circuit becomes as shown in the figure below

When a diode is reverse biased, it acts as an open switch. Since no current can flow to the load, the output voltage is equal to zero.

### Half Wave Rectifier Waveform

The halfwave rectifier waveform before and after rectification is shown below in the figure.

## Half Wave Rectifier Capacitor Filter

The output waveform of a halfwave rectifier is a pulsating DC waveform. Filters in halfwave rectifiers are used to transform the pulsating waveform into constant DC waveforms. A capacitor or an inductor can be used as a filter.

The circuit diagram below shows how a capacitive filter is used with halfwave rectifier to smoothen out a pulsating DC waveform into a constant DC waveform.

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## Half Wave Rectifier Formula

### Ripple Factor of Half Wave Rectifier

Ripple factor determines how well a halfwave rectifier can convert AC voltage to DC voltage.

Ripple factor can be quantified using the following formula:

The ripple factor of a halfwave rectifier is 1.21.

### Efficiency of Halfwave rectifier

The efficiency of a halfwave rectifier is the ratio of output DC power to the input AC power.

The efficiency formula for halfwave rectifier is given as follows;

### RMS value of Half Wave Rectifier

The RMS value of the load current for a half-wave rectifier is given by the formula:

### Form factor of a Halfwave Rectifier

The form factor is the ratio between RMS value and average value and is given by the formula:

## Applications of Half Wave Rectifier

Here are a few common applications of half wave rectifiers:

- They are used for signal demodulation purpose
- They are used for rectification applications
- They are used for signal peak applications

### Disadvantages of Half Wave Rectifier

- Power loss
- Low output voltage
- The output contains a lot of ripples

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