Student of Andhra Pradesh Board will have already learned about air and water pollution in previous classes. In Class 9, they will specifically learn about soil pollution, its causes and effects. AP Board Class 9 Biology Chapter 10 also covers topics like;
- Formation of Soil
- Properties of Soil
- Soil Fertility
- Control of Soil Pollution
Formation of Soil
The formation of soil is mostly a long and complex process. As per records, soil formation takes about 100 to 10,000 years and are mostly driven by a lot of factors like topography, living organisms, climate, and types of parent material.
Properties of Soil
Soil properties are classified into three types, namely physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Soil comprises minerals, organic matter, water and air. The composition and proportion of these components greatly influence soil physical properties. Chemical properties mainly deal with pH level or the level of acidity or alkalinity of a soil. The biological aspect deals with all the diverse living organisms that are found in the soil.
Soil fertility is defined as the capacity of the soil to hold water and nutrients and supply them to plants, when they need them. Notably, soil fertility is totally independent of the direct application of nutrients.
Soil or land pollution can be defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic chemical compounds, salts, radioactive materials, or even disease-causing agents, which adversely affects the growth of a plant and the health of animals.
Causes of Soil Pollution
Some top causes of soil pollution are;
- Wrong Agricultural Practices
- Industrial Waste
- Dumping of Solid Waste
Effects Of Soil Pollution
If we look at from a broad perspective, the effects of soil pollution are vast, dangerous and many. In any case, the effects can be summarised in three broad categories such as;
- Hazardous chemical entered into the food chain from the soil, causes disruption of biochemical process.
- Soil becomes infertile because of waterlogging and salinity.
- Toxic chemicals affect plant growth and animal life.
Prevention of Soil Pollution
There are many ways to control soil pollution and mostly includes the three R’s principles which are Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. However, some effective ways to control soil pollution are;
- Waste Management.
- Adapting soil conservation techniques and proper farming methods.
Students can read some questions below and learn about some interesting chapter topics.
Question 1: What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials?
Answer: Biodegradable materials are any organic material that can be easily broken down by microorganisms into simpler compounds, whereas materials that cannot be degraded by microbial action are said to be non-biodegradable materials.
Question 2: Explain Biomagnification?
Answer: Biomagnification is a phenomenon that involves a sequence of processes where higher concentrations of a particular chemical like pesticides are transferred in organisms higher up the food chain. It generally happens through a series of prey-predator relationships.
Do remember to keep visiting BYJU’s and get all the required information regarding Class 9 Science topics. Students can also gain access to various Andhra board study materials like question papers and more.