AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 4 Excretion

Excretion is a biological process that separates and removes wastes and non-useful products from the body. In AP Class 10 Biology Chapter 4 Excretion, we will study how excretion takes place in human beings.

Human Excretory System

The human excretory system is comprised of:

  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urethra

Each kidney is composed of a large number of nephrons, which are structural and functional units of the kidney.

The formation of urine involves four stages, which are

  • Glomerular Filtration
  • Tubular Reabsorption
  • Tubular Secretion
  • Concentration of Urine

Different animals have different excretory organs. A list of excretory organs in various animals is given in the below table:

Organism Excretory Organ
Amoeba Contractile Vacuole
Platyhelminthes Flame Cells
Annelida Nephridia
Arthropoda Malpighian Tubule
Reptiles, Birds And Mammals Kidney

Plants do not possess organs for excretion. They store different waste materials in leaves, bark, roots, seeds which fall of from the plants. In the next section, let us look at a few chapter questions to better understand the concepts discussed in the chapter.

Class 10 Biology Chapter 4 Excretion Questions

  1. Name different excretory organs in the human body and excretory material generated by them?

Solution:

The different excretory organs in the human body and the excretory waste generated by them are given below in a table.

Excretory Organ Waste Excreted
Lungs Carbon dioxide and Water
Skin Sweat
Liver Metabolic wastes of haemoglobin of dead R.B.Cs
Intestine Excess salts of calcium magnesium and iron

2. How do plants manage the waste materials?

Solution:

  • Plants get rid of excess water by a process like transpiration and guttation.
  • Waste products are stored in leaves, bark and fruits and when these components wither the waste materials are eliminated.
  • In a few plants, waste is stored in fruits in the form of solid bodies called Raphides.

3. What is the excretory system of Protozoa?

Solution: Simple diffusion from the body surface in to the surrounding water.

4. What are Tannins?

Solution:  Tannins are carbon compounds. These are stored in different parts of the plant and are deep brown. Tannins are used in tanning of leather and in medicines e.g. Cassia, Acacia.

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