Scientific Names Of Animals And Plants

Introduction to Binomial Nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature is a widely used, formal system of naming a species. The nomenclature consists of two names, both of which are derived from Latin. However, it can be derived from other languages too. Such a name is called a binomial name or a scientific name.

The generic name or the initial part of the name highlights the genus to which an organism belongs to. The second part, or the specific name, identifies the exact species to which the organism falls under, within the genus.

Furthermore, there are certain rules to be followed in binomial nomenclature, such as the generic name is always capitalized, while the specific name is not. Also, the entire name is to be italicised. We can understand this system better with an example:

Modern Humans
Generic Name Homo
Specific Name sapiens

Scientific Names Of Animals

Listed below are the scientific names of a few common animals.

Common Animals Names with Their Scientific Names

Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius
African elephant Loxodonta africana
Albatross Diomedeidae
Alpaca Lama pacos
Asian Elephant Elephas maximus
Bison Bos gaurus
Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra
Black rat Rattus rattus
Buffalo Bubalus bubalis
Bulbul Molpastes cafer
Cat Felis domesticus
Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus
Chinkara Gazella bennettii
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis
Crocodile Crocodylus palustris
Dog Canis lupus familiaris
Red fox Vulpes vulpes
Gavial or Gharial Gavialis gangeticus
Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis
Great horned owl Bubo virginianus
Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius
Horse Equus caballus
House crow Corvus splendens
House mouse Mus musculus
House sparrow Passer domesticus
House wall Lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis
Indian Cobra Naja naja
Indian parrot Psittacula eupatria
Indian Python Python molurus
Kashmir stag or hangul Cervus canadensis hanglu
King cobra Ophiophagus hannah
Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus
Leopard or panther Panthera pardus
Lion Panthera leo
Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus
Peacock Pavo cristatus
Pigeon Columba livia
Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus
Rat snake Ptyas mucosa
Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta
Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis
Sea snake Hydrophiinae
Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus
Tiger Panthera tigris
Wild Ass Equus africanus asinus
Wild boar Sus scrofa
Wolf Canis lupus
Zebra Equus quagga

Scientific Names Of Plants

Listed below are the scientific names of a few common plants.

Common Plant Names with Their Scientific Names

Apple Malus domestica
Bamboo Bamboosa aridinarifolia
Banana Musa paradisiaca
Banyan Ficus benghalensis
Black Gram Plasoes mungo
Black Pepper Piper nigrum
Brinjal Solanum melongena
Capsicum Capsicum frutescens
Carrot Daucas carota
Clove Syzygium aromaticum
Coriander Coriandrum sativum
Cotton Gossypium herbaceum
Cucumber Cucumis sativus
Curry plant Murraya koenigii
Drumstick Moringa oleifera
Garlic Allium sativum
Ginger Zingiber officinale
Green Gram Phaseolies aulicus
Guava Psidium guajava
Henna Lawsonia inermis
Horse Gram Dolichos biffoeus
Jowar Sorghum vulgare
Lemon Citrus limonium
Lettuce Lactuca sativa
Maize Zea mays
Mango Mangifera indica
Mint Mentha arvensis
Money Plant Epipremnum aureum
Neem Azadirachta indica
Onion Allium cepa
Orange Citrus aurantium
Pineapple Ananas comosus
Potato Solanum tuberosum
Radish Raphanus sativus
Red Gram Cajanus cajan
Sandalwood Santalum album
Spinach Spinacia oleracea
Tobacco Nicotina tobaccum
Tomato Solanum lycopersicum
Tulsi Ocimum sanctum
Turmeric Curcuma longa
Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris
Wheat Triticum aestivum

Scientific Names Of Extinct Organisms

Listed are a few of the most popular and well-known extinct organisms along with their scientific names.

Famous Extinct Organisms with Their Scientific Names

Passenger pigeon Ectopistes migratorius
Tasmanian tiger Thylacinus cynocephalus
Moa Dinornithiformes
T-Rex Tyrannosaurus rex
Great auk Pinguinus impennis
Megalodon Carcharocles megalodon

Uses Of Scientific Names

Scientific names or Binomial Nomenclature is a scientific process wherein entities such as plants, animals, living entities are named and they are derived from Latin. It has many advantages such as:

  •  Classification and organisation – Entities are comprehensively organised which makes understanding and studying characteristics of particular entities easy and organized
  • Precision and clarity – The names that are given are unique wherein each is given one scientific name, hence avoiding confusion
  • The scientific names are universally recognized and standardized
  • Even if species are transferred to another genus on the basis of new knowledge, the names are retained
  • It helps understand the similarities and differences between various species that belong to the same genera that are helpful in building an association between the two.

Also Read: Photosynthesis

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you write a scientific name?

While writing a scientific name, one needs to be mindful of the first letter of the genus name, which always has to be written in upper case letters. The first letter of species descriptor is always written in lower case letters, never in upper case even if it is a proper noun.

Who came up with the concept of having scientific names?

The scientific naming system was proposed by Carl von Linne or Carl Linnaeus, in an attempt to explain the natural world by providing a two-part binomial nomenclature or scientific name.

What is trinomen? Give an example.

Trinomen is the trinomial name given to animals apart from the genus name and the species name. It is usually given to identify a subspecies. For example, the trinomen of the grey wolf subspecies, the Arctic wolf, is Canis lupus arctos.

What is the scientific name for modern humans?

Modern humans have been given the trinomial designation as Homo sapiens sapiens.

Further Reading:

 

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