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Types of Operating System

Operating systems assist in resolving the small computer difficulties by providing insight into the computer’s inner workings. It functions as a resource manager, managing all of the OS’s files, memory, and processes with the help of the user’s coding abilities. By acting as an interface between programs, it improves communication between processes. Hence, having a basic understanding of OS is required.

In this article, we will look more into the types of Operating Systems according to the GATE Syllabus for (Computer Science Engineering) CSE. Read ahead to learn more.

Table of Contents

What are the Types of Operating Systems?

An OS refers to a collection of well-organised applications that manage computer hardware. It is a form of system software which is responsible for the computer system’s flawless operation.

There are basically eight types of Operating Systems. Here are all the types of OS along with their pros and cons:

1. Batch Operating System

Batch processing was quite popular in the 1970s. Similar types of jobs have been batched together and completed on time using this method. People were very much accustomed to utilising a single computer, known as a mainframe.

Now, more than one individual can have access to this Operating System, and they can submit their jobs to the system for execution. The system places all of the jobs in a queue, first come, first served, and then executes them one at a time. When all of the jobs are completed, the users receive their respective outputs.

The fundamental goal of this Operating System was to transfer the control from one of the jobs to another as soon as it was finished. It had a small group of programs known as the resident monitor. These were always contained in one section of the main memory. The remaining portion is used for maintenance work. Learn more about Batch Operating System here.

Pros of Batch OS

The usage of a resident monitor helps in increasing the computer efficiency by reducing the time the CPU spent switching between two tasks.

Cons of Batch OS

Not Interactive: Batch Processing is not appropriate for jobs that rely on user input. Because the user is not present at the time of execution, a job that demands the input of two numbers from the console will never obtain it in the batch processing scenario.

Starvation: The batch processing suffers from a lack of resources.

Consider the following scenario:

In the batch, there are five jobs and they are J1, J2, J3, J4, and J5. In case J1 takes a considerably long time to execute, the other four tasks will either never be executed or will have to wait a long time. As a result, the other processes suffer.

2. Multiprogramming Operating System

Multiprogramming is a variation of batch processing in which the CPU is kept busy at all times. CPU time and IO time are two forms of system time required by each process. When a process completes its I/O in a multiprogramming environment, the CPU can begin the execution of other processes. As a result, multiprogramming helps in improving the system’s efficiency. Read more on Multiprogramming Operating System here.

Pros of Multiprogramming OS

It increases the job throughput of the system since the CPU continually runs one program. It is also possible to shorten response times since the resources are used pretty smartly.

Cons of Multiprogramming OS

Multiprogramming systems create an environment in which multiple system resources are efficiently utilised, but they do not allow for any user interaction with the computer.

3. Multiprocessing Operating System

Multiprocessing helps in performing parallel computing. There are several processors in a system, each of which can run multiple processes at the same time. The system’s throughput will be significantly increased as a result of this.

Parallel computing is performed by multiprocessing. The presence of more than one processor in the system allows it to run multiple processes at the same time, increasing the system’s throughput. Read more on Multiprocessing Operating System here.

Pros of Multiprocessing OS

Increased reliability: Processing duties can be spread among numerous processors in the multiprocessing system. This improves reliability because if one processor happens to fail, the work can be passed on to another to finish.

Increased throughout: More jobs can be performed in less time as the number of processors increases.

Cons of Multiprocessing OS

Because it manages multiple CPUs at the same time, a multiprocessing OS is more complex and advanced.

4. Multitasking Operating System

The multitasking OS refers to a logical extension of the multiprogramming Operating System, which allows users to run many programs at the same time. It enables a user to complete multiple computer tasks at the same time. Read more on the Multitasking operating System here.

Pros of Multitasking OS

This Operating System is better adapted to handling several users at the same time. Memory management is well-defined in multitasking Operating Systems.

Cons of Multitasking OS

In a multitasking environment, numerous processors are busy at the same time to finish any task; therefore, the CPU generates more heat.

5. Network Operating System

A Network OS is a type of Operating System that incorporates software and protocols for communicating with other computers over a network in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Read more on Network OS here.

Pros of Network OS

Because clients and servers are separated in this Operating System, network traffic is reduced. Setting up and maintaining this type of system is less expensive.

Cons of Network OS

The failure of a node in a system impacts the entire system in this form of the Operating System. Security and performance are critical considerations; as a result, network administration requires qualified network administrators.

6. Real-Time Operating System

In this type of system, each job has a deadline by which it must be completed; otherwise, there will be a significant loss, or even if the output is provided, it will be utterly useless. For example, in military applications, if you wish to drop a missile, the missile must be dropped with a specific degree of precision. Click here to read more on Real-Time OS.

Pros of Real-Time OS

Under the real-time OS, it’s simple to design, create, and run real-time applications. The maximum use of devices and systems is possible with a real-time Operating System.

Cons of Real-Time OS

The development of real-time Operating Systems is extremely expensive. Real-time Operating Systems are quite complex and can eat up a lot of CPU time.

7. Time-Sharing Operating System

The Time-Sharing OS provides computer resources to numerous programs at the same time in a time-dependent manner. As a result, it aids in providing direct access to the main computer to a large number of users. It’s a natural progression from multiprogramming. The CPU is swapped between numerous programs provided by the different users in time-sharing on a scheduled basis.

Because a time-sharing OS allows multiple users to be served at the same time, it necessitates sophisticated CPU scheduling algorithms and input/output management. Building time-sharing Operating Systems are complex and expensive. Learn more about Time-Sharing OS here.

Pros of Time-Sharing OS

The time-sharing OS allows for efficient resource use and sharing. The CPU idle time and response time are reduced using this technology.

Cons of Time-Sharing OS

In comparison to other technologies, data transmission rates are extremely high.

As numerous users access a system at the same time, the security and integrity of user programs loaded in memory and data must be maintained.

8. Distributed Operating System

The Distributed OS is separated into sections and loaded on different machines rather than being placed on a single machine. Each machine has a piece of the distributed OS installed to allow them to communicate. Because they must deal with a variety of networking protocols, distributed Operating Systems are far more sophisticated, massive, and complex than network Operating Systems. Read more on Distributed OS here.

Pros of Distributed OS

The distributed OS allows resources to be shared. This system is designed to be fault-tolerant.

Cons of Distributed OS

The cost of computing can be dominated by protocol overhead.

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