Global Stocktake (GST) [UPSC Notes]

The Global Stocktake (GST) is taking place in June 2023 at Bonn, Germany. It is an important meeting with respect to climate change. In this context, it is important to understand what the global stocktake is, what are its potential outcomes and how will it affect climate action worldwide. This topic is relevant for the IAS exam environment and ecology segment of GS paper III.

What is Global Stocktake?

Mandated by the 2015 Paris Agreement, the global stocktake (GST) is an exercise, which assesses progress in fighting climate change and bridges the adequacy gap.

  • It aims to increase global response in greenhouse gas emissions reduction, adaptation, finance, and technology availability.

Current Stocktake and Course Correction:

  • The ongoing stocktake is the first exercise under the Paris Agreement, meant to happen every five years.
  • Scientific evidence shows that current actions are inadequate to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • The world needs to cut emissions by almost half by 2030 from the 2019 levels to achieve the target, but current levels lead to a 3-degree Celsius rise by 2100.

Bonn Meeting 2023

The annual meeting in Bonn at the headquarters of the UN Climate Change Convention aims to enhance the global response to climate change.

  • One of the important tasks to be accomplished in this year’s meeting at Bonn is Global Stocktake (GST).

Challenges in GST Discussions

  • Countries can decide their contribution to climate action, but collective efforts are insufficient, necessitating some imposition.
  • Faultlines arise between developed and developing countries regarding apportioning responsibility.
  • Developed countries demand more from major emitters like China and India while developing countries highlight unfulfilled commitments.
  • The United States Position:
    • The US states that bridging the gap is not solely the developed countries’ responsibility.
    • It opposes including suggestions of ‘closing of pre-2020 gaps’ in GST decisions.
  • India’s Response:
    • India rejects ‘prescriptive messages’ from GST on what the content of a country’s climate action plan, (known as Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs) should be.
    • India insists on determining its climate targets in pursuit of national goals and demands the closing of pre-2020 gaps.
  • China’s Perspective:
    • China expresses disappointment over the insufficient capture of demands from 134 developing countries regarding pre-2020 gaps in GST discussions so far.
    • It emphasizes the importance of addressing pre-2020 gaps and highlights carbon dioxide emissions generated before 1990.


  • The GST discussions encompass contentious topics such as finance, adaptation, and technology transfer.
  • Technical discussions in Bonn will precede final decisions on the GST at the year-ending climate conference in Dubai.

Global Stocktake (GST) [UPSC Notes]:- Download PDF Here

Related Links
Kyoto Protocol Emission Gap Report 2022
Montreal Protocol Carbon Footprint & Carbon Watch
UNFCC COP 28 Climate Change Conference List of Environment Conventions & Protocols


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