16 June 2024 CNA
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A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
International relations
1. At outreach summit, G-7 commits to promoting IMEC
1. Ukraine peace summit opens in Switzerland with low expectations
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
F. Prelims Facts
1. Rajasthan’s SHGs help African women to farm and flourish
2. Centre launches portal to ecologically monitor Ganga
3. Antimalarials may relieve polycystic ovary syndrome
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category:International relations

1. Ukraine peace summit opens in Switzerland with low expectations

Syllabus: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.


Mains: Ukraine peace summit


Context​: The Ukraine Peace Summit, held in Burgenstock, Switzerland, commenced with cautious optimism but low expectations. Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy aimed to foster dialogue and seek a resolution to the ongoing conflict with Russia, despite the absence of key figures such as Russian President Vladimir Putin.


Summit Overview

  • Location and Context: The summit took place in the Alpine resort of Burgenstock, Switzerland, with rainy and misty weather setting a somber tone.
  • Attendance: The summit saw participation from 101 countries and organizations, including 57 heads of state. Notable absences included Russia and limited representation from India and Brazil.
  • Agenda: The two-day summit focused on three key issues: nuclear safety, freedom of shipping and food safety, and humanitarian concerns, including prisoners of war.

Key Statements and Goals

  • Zelenskyy’s Remarks: President Zelenskyy emphasized the importance of joint efforts to achieve peace and the significance of each nation’s contributions. He expressed hope for historical outcomes from the summit.
  • Swiss President’s Perspective: Viola Amherd highlighted the diverse participation, including nations like India, Saudi Arabia, and Mexico, underscoring the global interest in the summit.



Absence of Russia

  • Non-participation of Key Players: The absence of Russia, a primary party in the conflict, casts doubt on the effectiveness of the summit in achieving tangible peace resolutions.
  • Preconditions for Negotiations: Putin’s demand for Ukraine’s complete withdrawal from certain territories for peace talks remains a significant barrier to negotiations.

Low Expectations and War Fatigue

  • Skepticism and Realities: Journalists and experts expressed skepticism about the summit’s potential outcomes, given the current battlefield dynamics favoring Russia.
  • European Sentiments: War fatigue is evident in Europe, with rising far-right sentiments and the refugee crisis adding to the complexities.



Global Efforts for Peace

  • Symbolic Importance: The summit symbolizes global efforts to address the Ukraine conflict and the broader implications for international peace and security.
  • Diplomatic Engagement: The wide participation reflects a collective interest in seeking diplomatic solutions, despite the challenging circumstances.

Humanitarian Focus

  • Humanitarian Concerns: The summit’s focus on nuclear safety, shipping freedom, and humanitarian issues highlights the critical non-military aspects of the conflict.
  • Support for Ukraine: Continued international support for Ukraine underscores the global community’s commitment to addressing the humanitarian crisis.



Multilateral Dialogue

  • Inclusive Negotiations: Encouraging inclusive negotiations involving all stakeholders, including Russia, to achieve a comprehensive peace settlement.
  • Humanitarian Initiatives: Focusing on immediate humanitarian concerns, such as prisoner exchanges and civilian safety, to build trust and pave the way for broader peace talks.

Strengthening International Frameworks

  • Enhanced Diplomatic Efforts: Strengthening diplomatic channels and international frameworks to facilitate ongoing dialogue and conflict resolution.
  • Global Cooperation: Leveraging global cooperation to address the economic and humanitarian impacts of the conflict, ensuring sustainable support for affected regions.


Nut Graf: The Ukraine Peace Summit in Burgenstock represents a critical yet challenging step towards resolving the ongoing conflict. While expectations remain low due to the absence of key players like Russia, the summit underscores the importance of global efforts and humanitarian focus in seeking peace. Continued diplomatic engagement and inclusive negotiations are essential to achieving a sustainable resolution to the conflict.

2. Centre launches portal to ecologically monitor Ganga

Context: The Union Jal Shakti Ministry has launched an e-flow ecological monitoring system to provide real-time monitoring and analysis of the water quality of the Ganga, Yamuna, and their tributaries. This initiative, developed by the National Mission for Clean Ganga, aims to support the planning and monitoring of projects to maintain and improve river health.



  • Mandate: In 2018, the Centre mandated a minimum environmental flow (e-flow) for various stretches of the Ganga to be maintained throughout the year.
  • Namami Gange Programme: A flagship initiative under the Jal Shakti Ministry focused on cleaning the Ganga, now expanded to include its tributaries.

Features of the E-Flow Monitoring System

  • Real-Time Monitoring: Provides real-time data on water quality and key parameters such as inflow, outflow, and mandated e-flow across multiple projects.
  • Performance Tracking: Monitors the performance of sewage treatment plants (STPs) to ensure they operate at their rated capacity.
  • Centralized Monitoring: Facilitates monitoring of the Namami Gange programme activities at the central level.



Environmental Concerns

  • Flow Impediments: Dams and other structures have impeded the natural flow of the Ganga, raising concerns about ecological damage.
  • Water Quality: Maintaining the quality of river water remains a significant challenge due to pollution and inadequate treatment of sewage.

Technical and Logistical Challenges

  • Data Integration: Integrating real-time data from multiple sources and ensuring its accuracy can be complex.
  • Maintenance of STPs: Ensuring all sewage treatment plants operate efficiently and handle the expected load is a continuous challenge.



Environmental Impact

  • Ecological Health: Ensuring a continuous and sustainable flow of the Ganga and its tributaries helps preserve aquatic life and maintain ecological balance.
  • Pollution Control: Real-time monitoring aids in the timely identification and mitigation of pollution sources.

Policy and Governance

  • Data-Driven Decision Making: Provides policymakers with accurate, real-time data to make informed decisions about river management and conservation strategies.
  • Public Accountability: Enhances transparency and accountability in the execution and monitoring of river rejuvenation projects.

3. Antimalarials may relieve polycystic ovary syndrome

Context: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent health condition affecting millions of women globally, characterized by hormonal imbalance, irregular menstrual cycles, and cysts in the ovaries. Recent studies suggest that plant-derived compounds known for their antimalarial properties, particularly artemisinins, may alleviate symptoms of PCOS.


PCOS Overview

  • Definition: PCOS is an endocrine disorder causing enlarged ovaries with small cysts on the outer edges.
  • Symptoms: Common symptoms include menstrual irregularity, excess androgen levels, and polycystic ovaries.
  • Impact: PCOS can lead to infertility, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Artemisinins and Their Properties

  • Origin: Artemisinins are plant-derived compounds traditionally used for treating malaria.
  • Mechanism: These compounds suppress ovarian androgen production, which is crucial in managing PCOS symptoms.
  • Study Results: Studies in rodent models and a small cohort of human patients have shown promising results.


Current Treatments for PCOS

  • Limited Options: Existing treatments often focus on symptom management rather than addressing the root cause.
  • Side Effects: Many current treatments, such as hormonal therapies, have significant side effects and long-term health risks.

Research Limitations

  • Sample Size: The study on artemisinins involved only a small cohort of human patients.
  • Duration: The treatment duration in studies has been relatively short (12 weeks), and long-term effects are unknown.



Potential Breakthrough in PCOS Treatment

  • Novel Approach: Artemisinins offer a new therapeutic pathway by directly targeting androgen production.
  • Improved Quality of Life: Effective management of PCOS symptoms can significantly enhance the quality of life for affected women.

Broader Implications for Women’s Health

  • Metabolic Health: Reducing androgen levels can positively impact metabolic health and reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Fertility: Better management of PCOS can improve fertility outcomes for many women.


G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1.Consider the following statements with respect to India-Middle East-Europe
 Economic Corridor (IMEC):
  1. The MoU for IMEC was signed between India, United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, France, Germany, Italy, and the European Union.
  2. The United Kingdom is not a part of the IMEC. 
  3. IMEC bypasses Pakistan.

How many of these statements is/are incorrect?

  1. One only
  2. ⁠Two only 
  3. All three 
  4. ⁠None of the above

Answer: c

Explanation: All three statements are correct. 

Q2.Rajasthan Grameen Ajeevika Vikas Parishad (Rajeevika), recently seen in news is a:

(a) Cooperative Society

(b) ⁠Micro Enterprise

(c) Self Help Groups (SHG)

(d) ⁠NGO maintained by NITI Aayog


Answer: c

Explanation:Rajeevika a Self Help Group in Rajasthan has helped about 12,500 wo men in the western African countries of Mali and Senegal earn livelihoods.

Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to Namami Gange:
  1. It operates under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  2. It is implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) along with state governments, local authorities, and various stakeholders.Which of these statements is/are incorrect?(a) 1 only(b) 2 only

    (c) Both 1 and 2

    (d) Neither 1 nor 2


Answer: d

Explanation:Both the statements are correct. It is administered by the Ministry of Jal Shakti’s Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.

Q4.‘Artemisinin’ recently seen in news is used in the treatment of:

(a) Diphtheria

(b) Malaria

(c) Alzheimer’s disease

(d) Cancer


Answer: b

Explanation:Artemisinin and its semisynthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used in the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum.


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