Gist of Yojana May 2024 Issue: Weaves of India

Yojana Magazine is an important source of material for the UPSC exam. The monthly magazine provides details of major government schemes and programmes in various domains. Moreover, coming from the government, it is an authentic source of information for the UPSC Exam. Here, we provide the Gist of Yojana, exclusively for the IAS Exam.

Gist of Yojana May 2024
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1. Vibrant World of Weaves: Regional Diversity in Indian Weaving
2. Weaves of India - Collaboration And Cross-Cultural Influences
3. Indian Weaves Promoting Sustainability
4. The Icon of Indian Khadi Independence

1. Vibrant World of Weaves: Regional Diversity in Indian Weaving


  • India’s weaving tradition showcases immense regional diversity, reflecting its rich cultural heritage. 
  • From the intricate techniques of Kerala’s handlooms to the vibrant Patola of Gujarat, Indian weaving represents a unique blend of mathematical competence and aesthetic beauty. 

Kerala: Elegance in White

  • Tradition and Aesthetics: Predominantly white fabrics, symbolizing purity and austerity.
  • Popular Weaves: Mundu veshti, Kasavu saris, and dhotis.
  • Special Techniques: Use of gold borders and ribbed end pieces.
  • Home Linens: Known for compact weaves in towels and sheets.

Karnataka, Goa, and Maharashtra: Ingenious Combinations

  • Karnataka: Known for cotton and silk weaves, including Molakalmuru saris, Ilkal saris, and Udupi cottons.
  • Goa: Unique history of banned weaving, producing intricate checks and colour combinations.
  • Maharashtra: Famous for Paithani silk, Wardha cotton, and Vidarbha silks.

Gujarat: Entrepreneurial Spirit

  • Patola: Double ikat sarees with vibrant colours and bold designs.
  • Mechanized Industry: Surat’s power looms and the growth of the mechanized textile industry post-independence.

Rajasthan: Proliferation of Prints

  • Traditional Weaves: Known for hand-spinning and weaving floor coverings, durries, and plain fabrics.
  • Modern Growth: Expansion in printed fabrics and men’s formal wear in the mill sector.

Punjab and Haryana: Transition to Mills

  • Traditional Weaves: Coarse fabrics for home linens and everyday wear.
  • Modern Shift: Growth of machine-knitwear and wool fabrics post-independence.

Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir: Woolen Excellence

  • Himachal Pradesh: Kullu and Kinnaur shawls, blankets, and headwear.
  • Jammu & Kashmir: Pashmina shawls, embroidered woollens, and tweeds.

Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh: Central Textile Hubs

  • Madhya Pradesh: Known for Maheshwari and Chanderi sarees.
  • Chhattisgarh: Tussar silk and cotton weaving with significant NGO involvement.

Uttar Pradesh: Cultural Capital of Varanasi

  • Varanasi Weaves: Famous for Banarasi silk sarees with intricate designs and fine fabrics.

Bihar, Bengal, and Odisha: Eastern Elegance

  • Bihar: Tussar silk and Bhagalpur weaving revival.
  • Bengal: Continuity in cotton and silk weaves with modern technological upgrades.
  • Odisha: Known for ikat saris and unique tussar patterns.

Northeastern States: Rich Cultural Heritage

  • Assam: Mekhela Chador and Muga silk.
  • Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland: Diverse weaves reflecting tribal traditions and regional aesthetics.

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: Meeting Point of North and South

  • Andhra Pradesh: Famous for Venkatgiri and Gadwal sarees.
  • Telangana: Pochampally ikat sarees with geometric patterns.

Tamil Nadu: Mastery of Cotton and Silk

  • Kanchipuram Silks: Renowned for broad borders and temple-inspired motifs.
  • Traditional Techniques: Korvai and Chelnetha weaving.

Challenges in Traditional Weaving

  • Competition from Mechanization: Industrial looms and cheaper fabrics challenge traditional handlooms.
  • Economic Pressures: Weavers face economic difficulties due to lower demand and higher production costs.
  • Preservation of Skills: Need to maintain and pass down traditional weaving techniques.

Social and Cultural Impact

  • Changing Preferences: Shift towards Western wear and stitched garments.
  • Cultural Identity: Weaving remains a crucial part of regional and cultural identity.


Cultural Heritage and Identity

  • Regional Pride: Weaving reflects regional cultures and traditions.
  • Artistic Expression: Provides a medium for artistic and cultural expression.

Economic Contributions

  • Employment: Significant source of employment in rural and semi-urban areas.
  • Export Potential: Contributes to India’s textile exports and global cultural footprint.


Support and Promotion

  • Government Initiatives: Programs to support weavers and promote handlooms.
  • NGO Involvement: NGOs can play a crucial role in preserving and promoting traditional weaving.

Market Expansion

  • Domestic Market: Encourage the use of traditional weaves in contemporary fashion.
  • Global Market: Tap into international markets through fairs and exhibitions.

Innovation and Adaptation

  • Design Collaborations: Collaborations between designers and weavers to innovate and modernize traditional weaves.
  • Technology Integration: Use technology to improve weaving techniques while preserving traditional methods.


  • The vibrant world of Indian weaves showcases the country’s rich cultural diversity and artistic heritage. 
  • Despite the challenges posed by modern industrialization, traditional weaving continues to thrive, thanks to the dedication of skilled weavers and support from various stakeholders. 
  • By preserving and promoting these unique weaving traditions, India can maintain its cultural heritage and ensure the economic well-being of its weavers, while also appealing to contemporary markets both domestically and internationally.

2. Weaves of India – Collaboration And Cross-Cultural Influences


  • Weaving in India is an ancient tradition that reflects the country’s rich cultural heritage. From mythological tales to historical records, weaving has been deeply embedded in Indian society, influencing its social, economic, and cultural fabric. 
  • This craft has evolved over centuries through cross-cultural exchanges, leading to a diverse and vibrant textile tradition that continues to thrive today.

Historical Context

Ancient Origins

  • Indus Valley Civilization: Evidence of cotton cultivation and textile production dating back to 3300-1300 BCE.
  • Rigveda References: Weaving was significant in ancient Indian society, with mentions of textiles in religious and ceremonial contexts.

Mythological Significance

  • Vishwakarma and Vritra: The mythological tale of Vishwakarma, the divine artisan, highlights the sacred nature of weaving and its role in Indian folklore.

Cultural Evolution and Influences

Persian and Mughal Influence

  • Achaemenid Empire: Introduction of Persian motifs and techniques.
  • Mughal Empire: Flourishing of luxurious textiles like brocades, muslin, and velvets, supported by royal patronage.

European Impact

  • Colonial Period: Introduction of mechanized looms and synthetic dyes, expansion of textile manufacturing centres, and establishment of European trade networks.

Regional Styles and Techniques

Banarasi Silk

  • Concept: Embodies ‘Shringar’ (ornamentation).
  • Characteristics: Opulent, elegant, intricate patterns with Mughal-inspired motifs and metallic threads.

Kanchipuram Silk

  • Concept: Represents ‘Dharma’ (righteousness).
  • Characteristics: Rich texture, vibrant colours, distinctive zari borders woven with gold or silver threads.

Paithani Weaving

  • Concept: Symbolizes ‘Lakshya’ (aspiration).
  • Characteristics: Intricate weave, vibrant colours, peacock motifs, and tapestry weaving technique.

Patola Craft

  • Concept: Exemplifies ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ (the world is one family).
  • Characteristics: Double ikat technique, intricate geometric patterns, and motifs symbolizing harmony and balance.

Modern Collaborations and Innovations

Contemporary Designer Collaborations

  • Notable Designers: Sabyasachi Mukherjee, Anita Dongre, Rahul Mishra, Himanshu Shani, Aneeth Arora.
  • Impact: Infusion of traditional techniques with modern design sensibilities, global appeal, and preservation of craft heritage.

Ethical Practices and Sustainability

  • Fair Trade: Ensuring fair wages and ethical working conditions.
  • Sustainable Practices: Organic farming, natural dyes, and eco-friendly materials to reduce environmental impact.


Economic Empowerment

  • Livelihoods: Weaving provides sustenance and economic empowerment to countless artisans and their families.
  • Market Access: Collaborations with designers open new domestic and international markets for traditional weavers.

Cultural Identity

  • Preservation: Ensuring the transmission of weaving techniques and cultural heritage to future generations.
  • Global Appreciation: Reinforcing pride and identity within weaving communities through global recognition and appreciation.

Challenges Faced by Weavers

  • Market Demand: Adapting to changing market demands and competition from mass-produced textiles.
  • Artisan Population: Decline in the number of skilled weavers.

Sustainability Concerns

  • Environmental Impact: Need for sustainable practices to reduce reliance on harmful chemicals and minimize waste.


Capacity Building and Skill Development

  • Training Programs: Workshops and training programs to enhance technical skills and knowledge exchange.
  • Entrepreneurial Skills: Capacity building to adapt to evolving market trends and enhance business opportunities.

Supportive Policies and Initiatives

  • Government Support: Policies to promote traditional crafts and provide financial aid to weaving communities.
  • Collaborative Platforms: Creating platforms for collaboration between traditional artisans and contemporary designers.


  • Weaving in India is more than just a craft; it embodies the nation’s traditions, history, and values. 
  • Through centuries of cultural exchange and modern collaborations, Indian textiles continue to evolve, preserving the timeless beauty and craftsmanship of the country’s rich weaving heritage. 
  • By addressing current challenges and fostering innovation, the future of Indian weaving remains vibrant and resilient, ensuring its legacy for generations to come.

3. Indian Weaves Promoting Sustainability


  • The significance of Indian weaves has magnified as the world embraces sustainability. Indian weaves, characterized by their unique craftsmanship and cultural heritage, play a pivotal role in sustainable fashion. 
  • The Cotton Corporation of India (CCI) leads the way in promoting sustainable practices in cotton farming and weaving, with initiatives like the ‘Kasturi Cotton Bharat’ brand, which uses blockchain technology for end-to-end traceability.

Historical Context

Rich Legacy of Weaving

  • Historical Significance: Weaving in India dates back thousands of years, with each region having distinct traditions.
  • Examples: Intricate brocades of Varanasi, vibrant ikats of Telangana.

Cotton as a Cultural Symbol

  • Economic and Cultural Importance: Cotton is a crucial commercial crop and a symbol of India’s rich textile heritage.
  • Traditional Craftsmanship: Indian weaves have sustained livelihoods and promoted traditional artistry.

Eco-Friendly Practices

Natural Fibres

  • Materials: Cotton, silk, jute, and wool sourced locally.
  • Environmental Impact: These fibres are biodegradable, renewable, and support biodiversity.

Sustainable Techniques

  • Traditional Methods: Age-old techniques with minimal environmental impact.
  • Comparison to Synthetics: Natural fibres are eco-friendly compared to synthetic alternatives that contribute to pollution and resource depletion.

Role of the Cotton Corporation of India (CCI)

Minimum Support Price Operations

  • Economic Safeguard: CCI undertakes operations to protect cotton farmers from market volatility, ensuring fair prices.

Promotion of Sustainability

  • Sustainable Practices: CCI promotes sustainable farming and weaving practices.
  • Initiatives: ‘Kasturi Cotton Bharat’ brand with blockchain technology for transparency and traceability.

Collaboration with KVIC

Issues and Challenges

Competition from Mass-Produced Textiles

  • Market Pressures: Traditional weaves face competition from mass-produced textiles.
  • Infrastructure and Interest: Lack of infrastructure and dwindling interest among younger generations threaten traditional weaving communities.

Solutions and Opportunities

Leveraging Technology

  • Innovation: Use of technology like blockchain for transparency and traceability.
  • Skill Development: Investing in training programs to enhance the skills of traditional weavers.

Fostering Partnerships

  • Stakeholder Collaboration: Partnerships with designers, corporations, and government bodies to promote traditional weaves.
  • Consumer Support: Encouraging consumers to purchase local handloom products to support weavers and artisans.

Ethical and Sustainable Practices

  • Fair Trade: Ensuring fair wages and ethical working conditions for weavers.
  • Eco-Friendly Methods: Promoting organic farming and use of natural dyes to reduce environmental impact.


Economic Empowerment

  • Livelihoods: Weaving employs millions, especially in rural areas.
  • Local Development: Supporting weavers contributes to local market development and economic growth.

Cultural Preservation

  • Heritage Conservation: Preserving traditional weaving techniques and promoting cultural heritage.
  • Global Recognition: Initiatives like ‘Kasturi Cotton Bharat’ enhance the global valuation and appreciation of Indian textiles.


  • The promotion of Indian weaves through sustainable practices is crucial for preserving cultural heritage and supporting economic empowerment. 
  • The CCI’s initiatives, such as blockchain-enabled traceability and collaborations with organizations like KVIC, exemplify the fusion of tradition with innovation. 
  • By addressing challenges through technology, partnerships, and ethical practices, Indian weaves can continue to thrive in a sustainable future.

4. The Icon of Indian Khadi Independence


  • Khadi embodies the spirit of fellow-feeling and non-violence, principles central to India’s independence movement. Mahatma Gandhi popularized khadi during the Champaran Satyagraha, making it a symbol of self-reliance and resistance against colonial exploitation.

Historical Context

The Plight of Indian Farmers

  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917): Gandhi’s encounter with farmers highlighted their economic struggles, worsened by British exploitation of cotton.
  • Indigo Dye: Central to Champaran’s issues, where farmers were forced to grow indigo but couldn’t afford finished cloth.

Colonial Impact on Indian Textiles

  • British Policies: Raw cotton was exported to England, returning as expensive finished products.
  • Destruction of Textile Culture: Traditional Indian weaving suffered due to British industrial policies.

Traditional Textile Knowledge

Ancient Heritage

  • Historical Evidence: Finds from Mohenjo-daro and accounts by Greek and Roman traders.
  • Regional Diversity: Each region of India had unique weaving, dyeing, and printing techniques.

Decline During Industrial Revolution

  • Power Looms in England: Crushed Indian textile industries.
  • Unemployment: Millions of Indian spinners and weavers were left jobless.

Khadi Movement

Gandhiji’s Vision

  • Discovery of the Spinning Wheel (1908): Gandhi realized the importance of the spinning wheel for Swaraj (self-rule).
  • Revival of Spinning: Initiated to provide supplementary income for farmers and reduce dependency on British textiles.

Key Figures and Initiatives

  • Gangabehn Majumdar: Rediscovered the traditional spinning wheel.
  • Ashram Support: Weaving introduced in Gandhi’s ashram with local mill owners’ support.

Philosophical Foundation

  • Swadeshi Movement: Khadi became the central symbol of Swadeshi, emphasizing self-reliance and national pride.
  • Economic Proposition: Khadi was seen as a sustainable economic activity, decentralizing production and empowering rural areas.

Issues and Challenges

British Colonial Policies

  • Trade Restrictions: Laws favouring British textiles over Indian products.
  • Economic Exploitation: Low prices for Indian raw cotton, high prices for British finished cloth.

Modern Relevance

  • Market Competition: Khadi faces competition from mass-produced textiles.
  • Technological Challenges: Need for modernizing traditional techniques without losing authenticity.


Economic Empowerment

  • Rural Employment: Khadi provides jobs with low investment, especially benefiting women.
  • Income Distribution: Decentralized production helps in equitable income distribution.

Cultural Preservation

  • Heritage: Khadi maintains traditional textile knowledge and skills.
  • National Identity: Khadi as a symbol of India’s struggle for independence and self-reliance.

Solutions and Opportunities

Leveraging Technology

  • Modern Tools: Integrating appropriate technology to enhance productivity while preserving traditional methods.
  • Skill Development: Training programs for artisans to improve efficiency and quality.

Government and Institutional Support

  • Policies and Subsidies: Encouraging khadi production through favourable policies.
  • KVIC Role: Khadi and Village Industries Commission’s initiatives to preserve and promote khadi.

Market Expansion

  • Global Promotion: Positioning Khadi as a sustainable and eco-friendly fabric in international markets.
  • Consumer Awareness: Campaigns to highlight Khadi’s benefits and heritage.


  • Khadi remains a powerful symbol of India’s independence and cultural heritage. By promoting khadi, India can achieve sustainable development, preserve traditional crafts, and empower rural communities. 
  • The legacy of khadi, nurtured by Gandhiji, continues to inspire and offers a model for sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Supporting khadi is not only about honouring the past but also about building a sustainable and equitable future.
Related Links
Art and Culture Notes Arts of the Indus Valley
How to study Art and Culture for UPSC UNESCO
Warli Painting Environment And Ecology Notes For UPSC


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