Gist of Kurukshetra May 2024 Issue: Towards Embracing Green Technologies

Kurukshetra Magazine is a vital source of study material for the UPSC IAS exam. It is a monthly magazine that gives information about important government schemes and programmes in various sectors. Kurukshetra is an authentic source of information for the UPSC Exam. Here, we provide the Gist of Kurukshetra, exclusively for the IAS Exam.

Gist of Kurukshetra May 2024
Download PDF Here


1. Green Technologies: Current Status, Challenges, and Way Ahead
2. Empowering Rural Communities: Embracing Green Waste Tech in India
3. Biodiversity Conservation using Remote Sensing and GIS Tools
4. Usage of Green Technologies in Sustainable Water Management

1. Green Technologies: Current Status, Challenges, and Way Ahead


  • Green technology is pivotal in fostering a sustainable future. It encompasses innovations aimed at environmental enhancement and resource efficiency, crucial for addressing climate change and resource scarcity. India’s evolving policies and reforms aim to accelerate the adoption of green technologies, promoting sustainability and economic growth.

Current Status

  • Energy Sector: Adoption of renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and bioenergy. Initiatives such as the National Solar Mission and National Green Hydrogen Mission.
  • Building Sector: Implementation of green building designs focusing on energy efficiency and sustainable materials.
  • Transport Sector: Growth of electric vehicles (EVs) and sustainable public transit systems.
  • Water and Waste Management: Advanced waste management technologies and sustainable water usage practices.


  • High Initial Investment: Significant capital is required for green technology adoption.
  • Regulatory Hurdles: Complex regulations that impede development and implementation.
  • Public Acceptance: Need for greater public awareness and acceptance.
  • Infrastructure: Existing systems and infrastructures need to be adapted for new technologies.
  • Resource Management: Efficient use and management of renewable resources.


  • Economic Growth: Creation of new markets and job opportunities.
  • Environmental Benefits: Reduction of carbon emissions and environmental degradation.
  • Social Impact: Improved quality of life with access to cleaner air and water.
  • Innovation: Encouragement of business innovation and sustainable products.


  • Policy Support: Government incentives and supportive policies for green technologies.
  • Public Awareness: Campaigns to increase public knowledge and acceptance.
  • Investment in R&D: Funding for research and development of green technologies.
  • Infrastructure Development: Building and adapting infrastructure to support green technologies.
  • International Collaboration: Partnering with global entities to share knowledge and resources.


  • Green technology is essential for a sustainable future, addressing economic, environmental, and social challenges. 
  • India’s commitment to green technology through policies and initiatives sets a path for global leadership in sustainability. 
  • The way forward involves overcoming challenges through strategic investments, supportive policies, and public engagement. As Bob Brown stated, “The future will either be green or not at all.”

2. Empowering Rural Communities: Embracing Green Waste Tech in India


  • Rural India faces significant challenges in waste management, leading to environmental degradation and socio-economic disparities. 
  • Embracing green waste technologies offers a potential solution to empower rural communities and mitigate environmental impacts. 
  • Bridging urban-rural socio-economic gaps and ensuring equitable resource distribution are imperative for a circular economy transition and achieving the Net Zero Targets of 2070.

Current State of Waste Management in Rural Regions


  • Rural waste management in India is undeveloped, leading to environmental harm.
  • Common practices: open dumping, e-waste burning, river dumping, and plastic pollution.
  • Lack of formal waste management systems exacerbates the problem.
  • Urbanization and agribusiness sectors threaten organic farming and biodiversity.
  • Climate-induced hazards (floods, droughts) and socio-economic challenges (migration, poverty) complicate the situation.

Types of Waste

  • Solid waste (agricultural residues, wet waste)
  • Plastic waste
  • Biomedical waste
  • Construction and demolition (C&D) waste


  • Implementation of green waste practices can transform waste into valuable resources.
  • Energy recovery and recycling can generate economic value and reduce environmental impact.
  • Analysis of the Impact of Green Waste Technologies on Rural Communities

Technologies and Their Benefits

  • Renewable Energy: Technologies like Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) can drive rural development and poverty alleviation.
  • Waste Conversion Processes:
  • Thermal conversions (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification)
  • Bio-chemical conversions (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • Chemical conversions (trans-esterification for biodiesel)

Successful Implementations

  • Gasification in Japan, USA, and Europe reduces waste and greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Waste-to-energy solutions decrease reliance on fossil fuels.

Benefits of Implementing Green Waste Technologies

  • Empowering Rural Communities: Environmental conservation and socio-economic development.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Composting and biogas generation enhance soil fertility and reduce emissions.
  • Economic Opportunities: Sale of compost and biogas fosters rural entrepreneurship.
  • Climate Resilience: Proper waste management mitigates climate change impacts.
  • Community Engagement and Awareness: Knowledge and skills development foster community ownership and responsibility.

Identification of Barriers to Adoption of Green Technologies in Rural Regions

  • Pollution: Open burning of agricultural residues, e-waste, and plastics exacerbates air pollution and climate change.
  • Infrastructure: Limited infrastructure and resources hinder effective waste management.
  • Awareness: Lack of awareness about proper disposal practices leads to harmful consequences.

Potential Solutions and Innovations

Smart Waste Management Systems (SWM)

  • IoT Integration: Smart bins with ultrasonic sensors collect real-time data.
  • Optimized Logistics: GPS-guided trucks enhance collection efficiency.
  • Solar-Powered Sensors: Ensure continuous operation.

Best Practices for Successful Implementation

  • National Programs: Initiatives like the National Biogas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP) and Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • Community-Driven Initiatives: Self-help groups promoting composting and organic farming.

Case Studies

  • Hasiru Mane Project, Karnataka: Compost production by marginalized communities.
  • Punsari Village, Gujarat: Electricity generation from village waste.
  • Pind Cycle Program, Punjab: Incentivizing agricultural waste collection for biomass energy production.
  • Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Adoption and Scaling up Green Technologies
  • Social Inclusion of Waste Pickers: Recognizing their contributions and integrating them into local economies.
  • Digital Monitoring: Using IoT, mobile apps, and data analytics to streamline waste collection and disposal.
  • Education and Awareness Programs: Enhancing community knowledge on waste management practices.

Policy Recommendations and Conclusion


  • Replication of local best practices in other rural regions.
  • Fostering rural entrepreneurship aligned with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Implementing policies to address environmental injustice towards marginalized and remote communities.
  • Promoting cohesion policies between urban and peri-urban areas.
  • Supporting the concept of sustainable ‘green’ rural municipalities.


  • Supportive policy frameworks, financial incentives, and technical assistance are essential for adopting green waste technologies. 
  • Public-private partnerships can facilitate technology transfer, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in rural areas. 
  • By promoting the adoption and scaling up of green waste technologies, India can pave the way towards a greener and more inclusive future for its rural population.

3. Biodiversity Conservation using Remote Sensing and GIS Tools


  • Biodiversity conservation is a critical challenge globally and in India, one of the twelve mega biodiverse countries. Increasing human exploitation and climatic changes threaten biodiversity, necessitating effective conservation strategies. 
  • Geospatial tools like remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer significant potential in biodiversity conservation, enabling detailed mapping and analysis even in inaccessible terrains.

Current State of Biodiversity

Global and National Context

  • Biodiversity encompasses the variety of life at species, genetic, and ecosystem levels, found in terrestrial, marine, and other ecosystems.
  • India, with 2.4% of the world’s land area, hosts over 45,000 plant species and 91,000 animal species.
  • India’s biodiversity hotspots: Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Western Ghats, and Sundaland.
  • Biodiversity is spread across 10 bio-geographic zones, each with unique ecosystems and species.

Pressures on Biodiversity

  • Habitat fragmentation and loss
  • Over-exploitation of resources
  • Pollution and invasive species
  • Climate change and global warming
  • Significance of Biodiversity Conservation

Ecological Importance

  • Biodiversity ensures ecosystem productivity and stability.
  • It supports life through ecosystem services like oxygen production, pollination, and water purification.

Economic and Social Value

  • Direct utilization: timber, food, fuelwood, and fodder.
  • Indirect benefits: tourism, cultural values, and scientific research.

Global Efforts

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity: conservation, sustainable use, and equitable benefit sharing.
  • IUCN Red List: assesses extinction risk, highlighting species at risk of extinction.

Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Biodiversity Conservation

Remote Sensing

  • Provides data on landscape, regional, and global biodiversity.
  • Tracks changes in land use, forest cover, and vegetation.

GIS Tools

  • Manages, analyzes, and maps spatial data.
  • Integrates location data with descriptive information for comprehensive analysis.

Applications in Conservation

  • Mapping and monitoring protected areas.
  • Analyzing habitat fragmentation and land use changes.
  • Assessing the impact of climate change on species distribution.
  • Facilitating data-driven decision-making for conservation planning.

Issues and Challenges

Technical Barriers

  • High cost and complexity of technology.
  • Need for specialized training to interpret data accurately.

Implementation Barriers

  • Inadequate infrastructure in rural and remote areas.
  • Limited access to high-resolution data and satellite imagery.

Policy and Governance

  • Need for supportive policies and funding.
  • Coordination among various stakeholders for effective implementation.
  • Potential Solutions and Innovations

Capacity Building

  • Training programs for conservationists and local communities.
  • Establishing centres of excellence in geospatial technologies.

Policy Support

  • Incentivizing the use of remote sensing and GIS in conservation.
  • Integrating geospatial tools into national biodiversity strategies.

Technological Advancements

  • Developing cost-effective and user-friendly geospatial tools.
  • Promoting the use of drones and advanced satellite imaging for real-time monitoring.

Community Involvement

  • Engaging local communities in conservation efforts using geospatial tools.
  • Creating awareness about the importance of biodiversity and conservation technologies.

Case Studies

  • Hasiru Mane Project, Karnataka: Using geospatial tools for community-led composting and waste management.
  • Punsari Village, Gujarat: Generating electricity from village waste, showcasing waste-to-energy initiatives.
  • Pind Cycle Program, Punjab: Incentivizing agricultural waste collection for biomass energy production.


  • The conservation of biodiversity is crucial for maintaining ecological balance and ensuring sustainable development. 
  • Remote sensing and GIS tools provide powerful means for mapping, monitoring, and managing biodiversity. By addressing technical, implementation, and policy challenges, these tools can significantly enhance conservation efforts. 
  • Collaborative efforts between government, technology developers, and local communities are essential to harness the full potential of geospatial technologies for biodiversity conservation in India.

4. Usage of Green Technologies in Sustainable Water Management


  • Water is a vital yet scarce resource. Sustainable water management is crucial to ensure the availability of this resource for present and future generations. Green technologies offer environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions for managing water resources efficiently. These technologies can significantly benefit cities like Bengaluru, which are facing severe water shortages.

Importance of Sustainable Water Management

Global and National Context

  • Integrated System: Sustainable water management views the entire water system (drinking water, wastewater, rainwater, and stormwater drainage) as an interconnected whole.
  • Scarcity in India: The per capita annual availability of water in India has been declining, indicating an urgent need for sustainable practices.

Economic and Social Significance

  • Economic Impact: Inefficient water management can lead to economic losses, as projected by NITI Aayog, which estimates a 6% GDP loss due to water scarcity by 2030.
  • Social Importance: Access to clean water is essential for health, hygiene, and overall well-being.

Current Issues in Water Management

  • Limited Supply Augmentation: Limited potential to increase water supply.
  • Falling Water Tables: Over-extraction leading to declining groundwater levels.
  • Water Quality Issues: Pollution and contamination affecting water quality.
  • Climate Change: Changes in rainfall patterns and increased frequency of extreme weather events impacting water resources.

Significance of Green Technologies in Water Management

Environmental and Economic Efficiency

  • Green technologies are designed to be both economically and environmentally efficient.
  • They minimize adverse effects on the environment while providing cost-effective solutions for water management.

Innovative Approaches

  • Rainwater Harvesting: Collecting and storing rainwater for reuse, which can be particularly beneficial in urban areas.
  • Stormwater Management: Treating stormwater to remove pollutants before it enters water bodies.
  • Wastewater Treatment: Advanced bioreactors and biofilters that use microorganisms to treat wastewater.

Case Studies

Singapore’s Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS)

  • A comprehensive system for used water management using energy-efficient pumps, advanced membrane bioreactors, and cogeneration plants.
  • Reduces energy consumption and carbon emissions, while increasing resource recovery.

Werribee Treatment Plant, Melbourne

  • Utilizes advanced tertiary treatment processes to produce high-quality recycled water.
  • Provides recycled water for irrigation, reducing the demand for freshwater.

Challenges and Barriers

Technical Challenges

  • High costs and complexity of implementing green technologies.
  • Need for specialized training and expertise.

Implementation Challenges

  • Inadequate infrastructure in rural and remote areas.
  • Limited access to high-resolution data and advanced technologies.

Policy and Governance Issues

  • Lack of supportive policies and funding.
  • Need for coordination among various stakeholders.

Potential Solutions and Strategies

Capacity Building

  • Establishing training programs for conservationists and local communities.
  • Creating centres of excellence in geospatial and green technologies.

Policy Support

  • Providing financial incentives and regulatory support for adopting green technologies.
  • Integrating green technology initiatives into national water management policies.

Technological Advancements

  • Developing cost-effective and user-friendly green technologies.
  • Promoting the use of renewable energy sources in water management processes.

Community Involvement

  • Engaging local communities in water management initiatives.
  • Raising awareness about the importance and benefits of green technologies.


  • The adoption of green technologies in water management is essential for ensuring the sustainability of this critical resource. 
  • By addressing technical, implementation, and policy challenges, these technologies can provide effective solutions for managing water resources efficiently. 
  • Collaborative efforts among government, technology developers, and local communities are vital to achieving sustainable water management and securing a water-rich future for India.
Related Links
National Green Hydrogen Mission Fuel cells
National Green Hydrogen Mobility Project Solar cells
Climate change Green Hydrogen Policy 2022


Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published.