9 June 2018: UPSC Exam PIB Summary & Analysis
Rural sanitation coverage under Swachh Bharat crosses the 85% mark
- Under the Swachh Bharat Mission, the largest behavior change programme in the world, the rural sanitation coverage of India has now risen to 85%. Through mobilization of rural communities, 7.4 crore toilets have been built across rural India, and as an outcome, over 3.8 lakh villages and 391 districts have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF).
- This is significant because, under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), sanitation coverage has increased to more than double the coverage at the time of the launch of the Mission.
- A recent survey conducted by an Independent Verification Agency across 90,000 households in over 6000 villages has found the usage of toilets in rural India to be 93.4%. Two independent surveys conducted in the past by the Quality Council of India in 2017, and National Sample Survey Organization in 2016, have pegged the usage of these toilets at 91% and 95% respectively.
- This success has been achieved due to the difference in approach to sanitation adopted by the Swachh Bharat Mission in comparison to previous sanitation programmes in the country.
- The Swachh Bharat Mission is the first sanitation programme in the country to measure outcomes (ODF) instead of output (toilets) alone. The SBM’s emphasis on behavior change in rural sanitation at the grassroots also leads to rigorous verification and sustainability of the benefits accrued to rural communities under the progress made.
- The SBM is a people’s movement, a true janandolan, and it is this people’s participation that has led to the success being witnessed under the Mission. The Mission is on track to achieve an ODF India by October 2019.
The IBC (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018 and the Homebuyer: An article by the Union Minister, Shri ArunJaitley
- “Post 1991 economic liberalisation, there has been a phenomenal growth in the creation of new townships, urbanisation and more particularly sub-urbanisation. This trend is likely to accelerate. Economic growth gives rise to aspirations. More purchasing power, migration from rural areas and aspiration to improve the quality of life are increasing. In and around major townships massive real estate projects have been coming up. Many of these are by professional real estate developers. This is also an area where many “fly by night” operators have entered. Some developers have very little resources of their own. They use the homebuyer’s money to develop, invest in land banks and then get caught in debt trap. The homebuyer is the worst sufferer. He has a triple whammy. He has invested his savings with the developer. He may be paying EMIs on the loans taken and may continue to pay either rent of his currently occupied property or live in some alternate accommodation under compulsion.
- The new ordinance equates an “allottee” of a “real estate project” to be a person having a commercial effect of borrowing. He is now treated as financial creditor. He can initiate a corporate insolvency for a resolution against the errant developer. He acquires the right to be on the committee of creditors. He gets voting right. He can influence the resolution process. In the unlikely eventuality of liquidation, he stands at par with other financial creditors.
- Given his logistical problems, liquidations are rarely likely to take place in asset owning companies. Resolution is the natural course. In a resolution probably some other developer would acquire an interest or some alternative method found of completing the project. The inevitable consequence of this would be that the market itself will discover solutions. Just as the film industry, in the last few years, has increasingly formalised itself, the real estate industry would eventually will have to formalise itself. Sound and structured real estate developers would remain. The “fly by night” operators would be eliminated. Projects would be completed in reasonable time and investors would get their share of allotments expeditiously. Construction is already growing at a double digit growth. RERA and the new ordinance would only catalyse this process further”.
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