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NCERT Notes: C R Formula or Rajaji Formula (1944)

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam preparation. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like bank PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article will talk about C R Formula or the Rajaji Formula in details. C R Formula is an important topic for the IAS Exam. Download C R Formula notes PDF from the link provided below.

C R Formula (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

  • During the Second World War, the British government, under the viceroyalty of Lord Linlithgow had said that any move towards an Indian statehood would be possible only if the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League resolve their differences.
  • The League was increasingly demanding a separate nation of Pakistan for the Muslims whereas the INC was against the partitioning of the country.
  • To break this deadlock between the two major political parties in India, C Rajagopalachari, INC member who was close to Mahatma Gandhi, proposed a set of plans called the C R Formula or Rajaji Formula.
  • This was the first acknowledgement by a Congressman about the inevitability of the partition of the country and a tacit acceptance of Pakistan.

  • The Muslim League would join hands with the INC to demand independence from the British.
  • Both parties would cooperate and form a provisional government at the centre.
  • After the war, a commission would be entrusted with the task of demarcating those areas with an absolute majority of Muslims and a plebiscite to be held in those areas where all the inhabitants (Muslims and non-Muslims) would vote based on adult suffrage whether to form a separate sovereign nation or not.
  • In case of partition, joint agreements to be made for the safeguarding of defence, communications and commerce.
  • The above terms to come to fruition only if Britain transfers full powers to India.

  • In 1944, Gandhi and M A Jinnah held talks on the basis of the Rajaji Formula.
  • The talks were a failure as Jinnah had objections to the proposal.
  • Jinnah’s objections:
    1. He wanted the INC to accept the Two-Nation Theory.
    2. He did not want the entire population of the Muslim majority areas to vote on the plebiscite, but only the Muslim population in those areas.
    3. He was also against the idea of a common centre. Also, Jinnah wanted separate dominions to be created before the English left India.
  • The Sikhs also looked upon the formula unfavourably because the formula meant a division of Punjab. Although the Sikhs were a big chunk of the population, there were not in the majority in any of the district.
  • V D Savarkar and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee of the Hindu Mahasabha and Srinivas Sastri of the National Liberal Federation were also against the C R Formula.
  • The INC, which was hitherto opposed to the partition of the country was willing to give some concessions to get the League on board for talks for independence, but the League was more interested in Pakistan than freedom.

C R Formula (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Frequently Asked Questions on C R Formula


Q 1. What is the Rajaji Formula?

Ans. Rajagopalachari’s formula or Rajaji Formula was proposed to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and the Indian National Congress on the independence of British India.

Q 2. Who was Chakravarti Rajagopalachari?

Ans. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist. He was the last Governor-General of India, as India soon became a Republic in 1950.

Also, See:

UPSC 2023 Calendar UPSC Books
UPSC 2023 UPSC Notes
NCERT Notes: Popular Uprisings in the 18th and 19th Centuries – Politico-Religious Movements Simon Commission
Vaikom Satyagraha Cripps Mission

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