The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is a multi-governmental establishment formed by the mandate of the 3rd UN Conference on the Law of the Sea. It was created by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which was signed at Jamaica on the 10th of December 1982. The convention became effective on 16th November 1994.
This is an important topic for all IAS exam aspirants.
What is the function of the Tribunal?
The Convention establishes a comprehensive legal framework to regulate all ocean space, its uses and resources. It works to safeguard the various marine resources and protect the different species. It also has provisions related to territorial occupancies of seas, continental shelf, exclusive economic zones. It also helps to promote and leverage scientific research and for the development and transfer of marine technology.
What is UNCLOS and its function?
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is established to define coastal and maritime boundaries, to regulate seabed exploration, not within territorial claims, and to distribute revenue from regulated exploration.
Who are the members of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea?
The Tribunal is composed of 21 independent members elected by secret ballot by the States Parties to the Convention.