A protein can control spread of cancer cells
British researchers have identified a key protein that can control how breast cancer cells spread in the body.
- When tumour cells spread, they first enter the blood stream and grip onto the inner walls of blood vessels, the researchers explained.
- The cancer cells control a receptor protein called EPHA2 in order to push their way out of the vessels. When these cancer cells interact with the walls of the blood vessels, EPHA2 is activated and the tumour cells remain inside the blood vessels. When the EPHA2 is inactive, the tumour cells can push out and spread.
Scientists discover hidden galaxies
Scientists have discovered hundreds of galaxies just 250 million light years away from Earth. They were hidden from view until now by the Milky Way.
Horses know when you are happy or angry
Horses have the ability to recognise human emotions as researches have shown that ponies can distinguish between angry and happy human facial expressions.
How bacteria can ‘see’ where they are going
The team of British and German researchers revealed how bacterial cells act as the equivalent of a microscopic eyeball or the world’s oldest and smallest camera eye.
- Cyanobacteria are found in huge numbers in water bodies or can form a slippery green film on rocks and pebbles.
- Synechocystis — the species used in the study — is found naturally in freshwater lakes and rivers.
- As light hits the spherical cell body of the bacteria, it refracts into a point on the other side of the cell. This triggers movement by the cell away from the focused spot.
- Within minutes, the bacteria grow tiny tentacle-like structures called pili that reach out towards the light source. As they attach to the surface that they’re on, they retract and pull the bacteria along.