UPSC Exam Preparation: This Day in History July 30

30 July 1995

Notification issued to form the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC)


What happened?

On 30th July 1995, the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council was established and seen as a major step up towards formation of a separate state of Jharkhand.

Background

In this section, you can read a brief history of the State of Jharkhand, very useful for the UPSC civil services exam.

  • Historically, the mineral-rich region now called the state of Jharkhand was a part of many empires most prominently the Magadha Empire of ancient India. It was also considered to be a part of Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Vajji and Kashi during the time of the Mahajanapadas.
  • The region came under the control of the East India Company in 1765. The people, especially the tribal people, revolted against the oppression of colonial rule. The first revolt was in 1771 led by Tilkha Manjhi, called the Paharia Revolt.
  • There were several uprisings by different tribes through the years against colonial rule and oppression by the landlords. The Kol Risings of 1832 greatly shook the British administration in Jharkhand. The Santhal Rebellion occurred in 1855 led by two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu. The Munda Ulgulan, led by the charismatic Birsa Munda, lasted chiefly from 1895 to 1900 although the Munda uprisings had started even before.
  • In 1912, the Bihar province was formed carving it out of Bengal.
  • In 1929, the Simon Commission was submitted with a memorandum in which there was a demand for the separation of the state of Jharkhand.
  • In 1947, when India became independent, the All India Jharkhand Party was formed. In 1951, it became the major opposition party in Bihar.
  • The political movement for the state of Jharkhand started.
  • After 1962, the Jharkhand movement saw a lull when the Jharkhand Party aligned with the Congress Party. Tribal leader Jaipal Singh became a minister in the Bihar government led by the Congress. The Jharkhand Party then split into various factions.
  • Shibu Soren formed the Sonat Santhal Samaj in 1969. The movement saw a new wave of enthusiasm and awakening when Soren founded the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) with Marxist support in 1972.
  • In 1989, JMM organised a successful 6-day economic blockade.
  • In 1994, the then Bihar Chief Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav announced that the Jharkhand Development Autonomous Council Bill would be passed in the Budget session of the Assembly.
  • In 1995, the notification for the formation of the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) was issued. It was formed in August 1995 and the Council consisted of eighteen districts of the Santhal Pargana and Chotanagpur. The council’s chairman was Shibu Soren.
  • In July 1997, the Bihar government adopted a resolution for the formation of the state of Jharkhand.
  • In 2000, the Bihar Reorganisation Bill 2000 was passed in the Lok Sabha by the NDA government. It was passed in the Rajya Sabha and received presidential assent on August 25th
  • On October 12th, the Central Government issued a gazette notification stating the formation of the new state with effect from November 15.
  • Accordingly, the new state of Jharkhand was formed on 15th November 2000.

 

See previous ‘This Day in History’ here.

 

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