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24 Mar 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 24 March 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. India’s push for semiconductors
ENVIRONMENT
1. Why is India’s CAMPA at odds with new IPCC report?
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HISTORY
1. Slander against freedom fighters
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Stray Dog Crisis in India
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. India rejects J&J’s attempt to extend patent on TB drug
2. MoD signs contracts worth ₹3,700 cr. for radars for IAF
3. Govt. tapping technology to secure ancient scriptures for future
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: ENVIRONMENT

1. Why is India’s CAMPA at odds with new IPCC report?

Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

Prelims: About IPCC report and CAMPA fund

Mains: Critical evaluation of compensatory afforestation policies

Context

The release of the Synthesis Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Details

  • The Synthesis Report of the IPCC has said that safeguarding and conserving the existing ecosystems in the first place will play a better role in mitigating the impact of the climate crisis rather than efforts to restore ecosystems that have already been degraded.
  • These findings of the report by the IPCC have shed focus on CAMPA Law, which has been a controversial policy in India.
  • CAMPA allows for the cutting down of forests in one part of the country which can be replaced or compensated with afforestation elsewhere.

For more information on the “Synthesis Report of the IPCC” refer to the following article:

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis dated 23 Mar 2023

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)

  • Based on an order of the Supreme Court, the Environment Ministry established the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
  • CAMPA Law aims to mitigate the impact of the diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes by making sure that proper afforestation and regeneration activities are undertaken to compensate for the lost forest land.
  • CAMPA was established for the purpose of managing the money collected towards compensatory afforestation (CA) and any other money recovered by the agencies for utilizing forest land for non-forest purposes under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
    • As per the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, for projects to divert the forest land, land elsewhere must be identified to afforest, and money has to be paid for the land value and the afforestation exercise. 
    • Further, such land will be stewarded by the forest department thereafter.

Read more on the CAMPA Law in the linked article.

Concerns associated with CAMPA law

  • The CAMPA has been criticised for allowing the destruction of natural ecosystems in return for afforestation in some other or faraway places.
    • For instance, setting up single-species plantations in Haryana does not really compensate for the deforestation of a natural sal forest in a Central Indian forest in terms of biodiversity, local livelihoods, and hydrological services.
  • Experts and researchers have also shown that natural ecosystems sequester more carbon.
  • Activists have also claimed that climate action such as various means to mitigate climate change, renewable energy farms, etc., should not come at the cost of natural ecosystems.
  • Further, it is seen that the money paid just sits in a fund overseen by the CAMPA. 
    • As of 2019, the fund had close to ₹47,000 crores.
  • The IPCC report has pointed out that “reducing conversion of natural ecosystems” is less expensive than “ecosystem restoration, afforestation, [and] restoration.”

Other key findings of the IPCC Synthesis report

  • According to the report the only option with more mitigating potential than “reducing conversion of natural ecosystems” was solar power and the third-highest was wind power.
  • However, solar projects in India have also been criticised as local people believe that such projects limit land use and increase local water consumption.
  • Also, studies have found that wind farms in the Western Ghats had impacted the abundance and activity of predatory birds, which led to an increase in the density of lizards.

Nut graf: With the Synthesis Report of the IPCC highlighting the fact that conserving natural ecosystems is more important and beneficial than ecosystem restoration and afforestation, the Central and State governments must take a re-look at the existing compensatory afforestation policies.

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