Anamalai Tiger Reserve

Anamalai Tiger Reserve is also known as Annamalai Tiger Reserve or Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, earlier it was called “Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park” (IGWS&NP). Situated in the Anamalai hills of Tamil Nadu state, this Tiger Reserve spans over two districts, namely Coimbatore, and Tirupur.

A region within the Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as a Tiger Reserve in the year of 2007 under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

The topic has a high chance of being asked as an Environment Questions in IAS Prelims.

Table of Contents:

  1. About Anaimalai Tiger Reserve
  2. Flora of Anamalai Tiger Reserve
  3. Fauna of Anamalai Tiger Reserve
  4. Tribes Inhabiting Anamalai Tiger Reserve

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About Anaimalai Tiger Reserve

Tamil Nadu has 4 Tiger Reserves and Anamalai Tiger Reserve, is one of the most extensively protected among them. The forests of the wildlife sanctuary have typical flora and fauna on the lines of the Western Ghats.

Recent Developments

  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR-SBI) recently launched a project called ‘Knowledge Empowerment of Tribals’ at the Advanced Wildlife Management Training Centre.
  • Under the project the tribal people residing in the wildlife sanctuary were trained to set up “Nutrition Garden”, and techniques of growing vegetables too.
  • The tribal women and children were found to be in a malnourished state, so the initiative aims to raise their nutrition status as mooted in the Development Action Plan for Scheduled Tribe Component (DAPSTC) of the project, focusing upon the nutritional requirements of these tribes.
  • The tribal residents of the forest were provided with farm tools, household items, seed kits, and other necessary items too, for growing necessary plants for their own consumption to raise their nutritional level.

Flora of Anamalai Tiger Reserve

It consists of over 2000 unique types of plants and trees of which around 400 are believed to be of prime medicinal use. Due to the diverse rainfall and gradient pattern, there are two types of forests type found in the region such as :

  • Dry Deciduous forests
  • Moist Deciduous forests
  • Dry Evergreen forests
  • Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf forests
  • Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf forest
  • Montane Shola Grassland
  • Thorny Shrub forests
  • Montane Rain forests
  • Marshes

Mango, Teek, Reeds, Eucalyptus, Cotton – Silk Tree, and Bamboo among others are the most prominent species found here.

Note: Visit the attached link to read more about Natural Vegetation in India and Forest Types.

Fauna of Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The forests have over 250 species of birds of which 16 are endemic to the Anamalai Tiger Reserve. It also has over 315 species of butterfly of which around 44 are endemic to Annamalai Tiger Reserve.

Threatened Mammals of Anamalai Tiger Reserve:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Pangolin
  • Leopard
  • Giant Squirrel
  • Smooth-coated Otter
  • Sloth Bear
  • Sambar Deer
  • Rusty-spotted Cat
  • Niligiri Langur
  • Malabar Spiny Dormouse
  • Gaur
  • Brown Mongoose
  • Lion Tailed Macaque
  • Nilgiri tahr
  • Dhole
  • Indian Elephant

Animals of Least Concern in Anamalai Tiger Reserve:

  • Indian Palm Squirrel
  • Indian Porcupine
  • Grey Slender Loris
  • Ruddy Mongoose
  • Striped-Necked Mongoose
  • Grey Mongoose
  • Small Civet
  • Asian Palm Civet
  • Bonnet Macaque
  • Grey Langur
  • Wild Boar
  • Spotted Chevrotain
  • Muntjac
  • Chital
  • Jungle Cat
  • Leopard Cat
  • Golden Jackal

Important Birds of Anamalai Tiger Reserve

There are 31 bird species that are considered very important and are found here are Great Indian Hornbill, Nightjars, Falcons, Kites, Owls, Lesser Fish Eagles, Hawk Eagles, Harriers, Kingfishers, Storks, Egrets, Woodpeckers, Leafbird, Trogons, Warblers, Old World Flycatchers, Drongos, Orioles, Shrikes, Parakeets, Asian Barbets, Spurfowl, Indian Peafowl, Partridge, Quail, Jungle Fowl, Cormorants, Ducks, Teal, and Darter.

Endemic Birds of Western Ghats

There are 27 bird species that are endemic to Western Ghats and are also found in the Anamalai Tiger Reserve.

  • Square- tailed Black Bulbul
  • Malabar Woodshrike
  • Malabar White Headed Starling
  • Broad- tailed Grassbird
  • Nilgiri Thrush
  • Nilgiri Blue Robin
  • White- bellied Blue Robin
  • Nilgiri Flycatcher
  • Black and orange Flycatcher
  • White- bellied Blue Flycatcher
  • Vigors’s Sunbird
  • Wynaad Laughingthrush
  • Nilgiri Laughingthrush
  • Rufous Babbler
  • Flame- throated Bulbul
  • Grey- headed Bulbul
  • White- bellied Treepie
  • Malabar Lark
  • Nilgiri Pipit
  • Crimson- backed Sunbird
  • Nilgiri Flowerpecker
  • White- cheeked Barbet
  • Malabar Barbet
  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • Malabar Parakeet
  • Malabar Imperial Pigeon
  • Nilgiri Woodpigeon

Tribes Inhabiting Anamalai Tiger Reserve

As per the Tamil Nadu State forest department website, there are around 6 Scheduled Tribes living in the region with their population more than 5,000. These tribes are:

  1. Malasar
  2. Malaimalasar
  3. Kadar
  4. Muduvar
  5. Pulayar
  6. Eravalar

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Related Links:

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) International Day for Biological Diversity [May 22]
Royal Bengal Tiger -10 Interesting Facts About Indian National Animal National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
Difference Between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park Tiger Census Report – Tiger Population in India
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India List of National Parks in India

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