All India Kisan Sabha - UPSC History Notes

All India Kisan Sabha is a peasant front working for the rights of the farmers and anti-feudal movement in India. It was founded in 1936 at Indian National Congress (INC) Lucknow Session as All India Kisan Congress. Sahajanand Saraswati who was the pioneer of Bihar Kisan Sabha Movement and founder of Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) was the first President of the All India Kisan Sabha. After the split of Communist Party of India in 1964, the front was also divided into two — All India Kisan Sabha (CPI) and All India Kisan Sabha (CPI-M; Akhil Bhartiya Kisan Sabha). Read on to know more about the peasant front for the IAS Exam.

‘All India Kisan Sabha’ is one of the important peasant struggle movements to be read for UPSC Preparation. Related topics to peasant movements can be found below:

  1. Deccan Riots of 1875
  2. Peasant Movements and Tribal Uprisings
  3. Indigo Rebellion
  4. Rangpur Dhing
  5. Post-Independent Zamindari System

History of All India Kisan Sabha

The Kisan Sabha movement was started in Bihar. In 1929, Sahajanand Saraswati formed Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS).

The facts about All India Kisan Sabha are given in the list below:

  1. The All India Kisan Sabha was formed in 1936 at Lucknow.
  2. All India Kisan Sabha is also known as ‘Akhil Bhartiya Kisan Sabha.’
  3. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was the head of the Sabha.
  4. The secretary of this association was NG Ranga.
  5. The motives of the All India Kisan Sabha were:
    1. To abolish the Zamindari system,
    2. To reduce land revenue,
    3. To institutionalize credit.
  6. In the 1937 elections, INC got a good number of seats and formed the majority in as many as 8 provinces. The INC was in power for almost 28 months, and some legislation was brought especially in Bihar, where the land revenue was fixed at the rate of 1911 and the tenants who were tilling their lands for the past 12 years were now to become owners.
  7. A good number of the INC leaders were Zamindars themselves, while the peasants and workers came from another class. Thus this class clash within the INC was a hurdle, in implementing all the schemes that were visualized by Gandhi, Nehru and others.
  8. So, by and large, the INC failed to meet all the promises they had claimed to fulfil to the peasants. The peasants thus became disillusioned with the INC government.
  9. Thus, the All India Kisan Sabha felt betrayed by the INC and this is why, when in 1942, Mahatma Gandhi gave a call for the Quit India Movement, the peasant leaders such as Swami Sahajanand Saraswati appealed to the peasants not to support Gandhi or the INC.
  10. The peasant movement started being dominated by the socialists and communists and in the INC Haripura session, the rift between INC and AIKS became evident.
  11. In May 1942, CPI took over AIl India Kisan Sabha all across the country.
  12. There are two organisations at present working under the name AIKS (following the split of Communist Party of India in 1964):
    1. All India Kisan Sabha – Communist Party of India’s Peasant Wing
    2. All India Kisan Sabha – Communist Party of India-Marxist’s Peasant Front; also known as All India Kisan Sabha (36 Canning Lane)
History of Various State Kisan Sabhas:

  1. Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha – 1929 by Sahajanand Sarawsati
  2. UP Kisan Sabha – 1918 by Gauri Shankar Mishra and Indra Narayan Dwivedi and was supported by Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  3. Awadh Kisan Sabha – 1920 by Baba Ramachandra

Objectives of All India Kisan Sabha

All India Kisan Sabha works as the forum representing peasants and agricultural and other rural labourers. The following are the objectives of the All India Kisan Sabha:

  1. To abolish landlordism and to distribute the land free of cost to agricultural and other rural labourers.
  2. To improve the standard of living of rural masses and to develop agriculture and industry.
  3. To end exploitation meted out to the agricultural and other rural labourers.

All India Kisan Sabha – Recent Developments

  1. The All India Kisan Sabha led Milk Farmers Struggle in Maharashtra in August 2020 to bring attention to the plummeting milk prices to farmers.
  2. AIKS was a part of Bhoomi Adhikaar Andolan in July 2019 working for the rights of Adivasis and forest dwellers.

Conclusion

The All India Kisan Sabha has been a famous peasant struggle that started in the 20th Century against the Zamindari System. Today, it aids farmers, peasants and other agricultural and rural labourers to promote their standard of living. It is important for UPSC aspirants to know the basic history of All India Kisan Sabha for their exam preparation.

Frequently asked Questions about All India Kisan Sabha

What is the All India Kisan Sabha?

All India Kisan Sabha (All India Farmers Union, also known as the Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sabha), was the name of the peasants front of the Communist Party of India, an important peasant movement formed by Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936.

When and where did the Kisan movement start in India?

The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Sahajanand Saraswati who had formed in 1929 the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) in order to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus sparking the farmers’ movements in India.

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