Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries

 

The history of India is an essential segment in UPSC IAS Exam. The subject is interesting as well as important. Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries have an important role in the freedom struggle of India. Last year UPSC has asked nearly 6-7 questions from freedom struggle portion. Here we are giving the Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries to enhance your UPSC IAS Exam preparation.

Rangpur Dhing (1783)

  • Rangpur uprising took place in Bengal
  • It is called the first tough peasant rebellion against the rule of the East India Company.
  • It evidently uncovered the evils like Ijaradari scheme related with the system of colonial exploitation.
  • It paved the way for formulating a land settlement that would be permanent in nature
  • The rebellion spread over a significant area, including Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Palamau and Manbhum.
  • After two years of strong confrontation, they lost to modern weapons of the British.

Kol Rebellion (1832)

  • The Kols and other tribes enjoyed independence underneath their chiefs but the British entry threatened their independence.
  • The handover of tribal lands and the encroachment of moneylenders, merchants and British laws generated a lot of pressure.
  • The Kol tribal planned an insurgency in 1831-32 which was engaged primarily against Government officers and private money-lenders.

Mappila Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920)

  • Mappila uprising was sequences of rebellions by the Mappila Muslims of Malabar region of Kerala.
  • The main causes were, increase in land tax, security of tenure and exploitation of the poor peasantry by the landlords.
  • The revolt goes fell into the trap of Hindu-Muslim riot.
  • During this period there was Khilafat movement was raised for the fulfillment of freedom for Muslims.
  • The 1921 uprising was a manifestation of long-lasting agrarian dissatisfaction, which was only strengthened by the religious and ethnic uniqueness and by their political alienation.

Santhal Rebellion (1855)

  • It was a native rebellion in present day Jharkhand against both the British colonial authority and zamindari system by the Santhal people
  • It was planned by four Murmu brothers -Sidhu, Kahnu, Chand and Bhairav
  • The rebellion was suppressed thoroughly and largely shadowed by that of the other rebellions.

Indigo Rebellion (1859-60)

  • Indigo was recognized as a chief cash crop for the East India Company’s investments.
  • It is also known as Nilbidroha
  • All categories of the rural population, missionaries, the Bengal intelligentsia and Muslims.
  • This indigo revolt gave birth to a political movement and stimulated national sentiment against the British rulers among Indian masses.

Deccan Uprising (1875)

  • Along with the Permanent Settlement, British extended their presence beyond Bengal.
  • Ryotwari Settlement was the revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan region
  • The revolt started in Poona and henceforth it spread to Ahmednagar.
  • This uprising also involved social boycott of the moneylender.

Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900)

  • Birsa Munda-led this movement in the region south of Ranchi
  • The Mundas conventionally enjoyed a special rent rate as the original clearer (Khuntkatti) of the forest. But this was eroded by the jaghirdars and thikadars arrived as traders and moneylenders.
  • As a result of this rebellion, government enacted Chotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908, recognized Khuntkatti rights, banned Beth Begari (forced labor)

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