ChatGPT [UPSC Notes]

ChatGPT is an AI (Artificial Intelligence) chatbot that generates human-like responses to text input. OpenAI’s ChatGPT has amassed over one million users since it was released to the public on November 30, 2022. OpenAI is an AI research and deployment company. This is an important development for the IAS Exam science and technology section.

What is ChatGPT?

  • ChatGPT is a new AI chat tool from OpenAI that uses the latest advances in natural language processing and machine learning to generate intelligent and engaging responses to user input.
  • ChatGPT is based on the powerful GPT 3.5 series of language learning models (LLM)  and interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to answer follow-up questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises and reject inappropriate requests.
    • GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer and this is a computer language model that relies on deep learning techniques to produce human-like text based on inputs.
  • ChatGPT is a sibling model to InstructGPT which is trained to follow instructions in a prompt and provide a detailed response. 
  • It is trained using a machine learning technique called Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF).
  • ChatGPT is currently available on OpenAI’s website.

Key Difference between Chatbot and Search Engine 

The difference between search engines and chatbots is that search engines have short-term memory when providing results, whereas chatbots can have persistent, long-term memory as well as provide task execution. 

  • Chatbots have an advantage in being able to provide personalised and more accurate results based on persistent, historical interactions. In contrast, search engines can provide a minimal level of personalised results based on previous searches.

ChatGPT Limitations 

Some of the limitations of ChatGPT are as follows:

  • May occasionally generate incorrect information.
  • May occasionally produce harmful instructions or biased content.
  • Limited knowledge of the world and events after 2021.

The latest addition to OpenAI’s series of language models, the GPT-4, has been revealed and is anticipated to surpass its predecessor, the GPT-3, in sophistication and quality.


What is GPT-4?

OpenAI unveiled an upgraded version of the underlying technology used in ChatGPT, named GPT-4, which has the ability to produce text that closely resembles human speech. This latest version is an improvement over the existing ChatGPT, which is based on GPT-3.5 technology.

  • GPT-4 is a powerful and advanced artificial intelligence model that succeeds the technology behind the popular ChatGPT.
  • The acronym GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer, which employs artificial neural networks to create human-like writing.

Features of GPT-4:

  • OpenAI claims that GPT-4 is significantly more advanced than its predecessor in three key areas: creativity, visual comprehension, and context handling.
    • GPT-4 is reportedly superior to ChatGPT in terms of creativity, both in generating content and collaborating with users on creative projects such as music, screenplays, technical writing, and even adapting to a user’s writing style.
  • GPT-4 has enhanced ability to handle longer context and incorporate visual input, and has also expanded its capacity to process up to 25,000 words of text from users and even interact with text from web links.
    • This improvement in capacity can facilitate the creation of long-form content and enable ‘extended conversations’.
  • GPT-4 can handle images as a basis for interaction.
  • GPT-4 has gone through thorough testing and is capable of generating responses that are 40% more precise than the prior iteration. Furthermore, it has an 82% lower likelihood of creating content that is considered improper or offensive.


  • Similar to its previous versions, it is not as proficient as humans in many real-world situations, leading to inaccurate responses known as “hallucinations.”
  • GPT-4 lacks knowledge of events occurring after September 2021, as the majority of its data was cut off at that point, and it does not learn from experience.

Additional Information:

  • ChatGPT: It is a new AI chat tool from OpenAI that uses the latest advances in natural language processing and machine learning to generate intelligent and engaging responses to user input.

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