NCERT Notes: Extratropical Cyclones [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Extra-Tropical Cyclones.


Extra-Tropical Cyclones
  • The Extra-Tropical Cyclones are storm systems emerging in the mid and high latitudes, away from the tropics.
  • They are low-pressure systems with associated cold fronts, warm fronts, and occluded fronts.
  • These cyclones are formed along the polar front.
  • These cyclones move from west to east but tropical cyclones, move from east to west.
  • In the beginning, the front is stationary.
  • Extra-tropical cyclones are also known as mid-latitude storms or baroclinic storms.
  • In the Northern hemisphere, cold air blows from the north of the front and warm air blows from the south.
  • When the pressure descents along the front, the cold air move towards the south and the warm air moves northwards setting in motion an anticlockwise cyclonic circulation.
  • The cyclonic circulation results in a well-built extratropical cyclone, with a cold front and a warm front.
  • There are pockets of warm air compressed between the forward and the rear cold air.
  • The warm air climbs over the cold air and a series of clouds appear over the sky ahead of the warm front and cause rainfall.
  • The cold front approaches the warm air from behind and pushes the warm air up.
  • As an outcome, cumulus clouds develop along the cold front.
  • The cold front moves faster than the warm front eventually surpassing the warm front.
  • The warm air is entirely lifted up and the front is occluded and the cyclone dissipates.
  • They can originate over the land and sea and cover a larger area.
  • This cyclone affects a much larger area as compared to the tropical cyclone.
  • The velocity of wind in a tropical cyclone is much higher and it is more damaging.

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