NCERT Notes: Types Of Rainfall [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC IAS exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like bank PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Types of Rainfall

Types of Rainfall

Rainfall has been classified into three main types –

  • Convectional rainfall
  • Orographic or relief rainfall
  • Cyclonic or frontal rainfall

Convectional Rain
  • The air on getting heated becomes light and rises up in convection currents.
  • As the air rises, it expands and drops the temperature and subsequently, condensation takes place and cumulus clouds are formed.
  • Heavy rainfall with lightning and thunder takes place which does not last long.
  • Such rain is usual in the summer or in the hotter part of the day.
  • This type of rainfall generally takes place in the equatorial regions and internal parts of the continents, predominantly in the northern hemisphere.

Orographic Rain
  • When the saturated air mass comes across a mountain, it is forced to rise.
  • The rising air expands, eventually, the temperature falls, and the moisture gets condensed.
  • The principal characteristic of this type of rain is that the windward slopes get more rainfall.
  • After giving rain on the windward side, when these winds reach the other slope, they drop away, and their temperature increases. Then their ability to take in moisture increases and hence, these leeward slopes remain dry and rainless.
  • The region situated on the leeward side is known as the rain-shadow area.

Cyclonic Rain
  • Cyclonic activity causes cyclonic rain and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone.
  • When two masses of air of unlike density, temperature, and humidity meet then it is formed.
  • The layer that separates them is known as front.
  • Warm front and the cold front are the two parts of the front.
  • At the warm front, the warm lighter wind increases slightly over the heavier cold air.
  • As the warm air rises, it cools, and the moisture present in it condenses to form clouds
  • This rain falls gradually for a few hours to a few days.

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