The Horn of Africa or HOA in short is a peninsula situated in the northeast of the African continent. The HOA juts into the Arabian Sea for hundreds of kilometers and is located along the south of the Gulf of Aden. This region is the easternmost projection of Africa. In ancient and medieval periods, the area was called Bilad al Barbar meaning land of the Berbers. The countries included in the HOA are Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti.
HOA covers an approximate area of 2 million square kilometers and is populated by about 115 million people. Ethiopia has a population of 96.6 million, Eritrea has 6.4 million, Somalia has 10.4 million and Djibouti has roughly 0.81 million people. HOA regional studies are carried out as part of Ethiopian Studies and also Somali Studies.