17 Jul 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11
CNA 17 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
HEALTH
1. Wastewater surveillance for COVID-19 reveals dynamics of infection
2. Be especially chary of green pit vipers
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY
1. Bail Law Reform
INDIAN SOCIETY
1. Where is population growth taking place?
ECONOMICS
1. Will RBI move help greater trade in rupee?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Vice President Elections
G. Tidbits
1. Bid date for submarine project extended again
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. Be especially chary of green pit vipers

Syllabus: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

Prelims: Green Pit Vipers

Mains: Concerns associated with the use of antivenom in India

Context

This article discusses the concerns about antivenom available in India for snakebites.

Details

  • The green pit viper is not more lethal than Russell’s viper, but the hemotoxic venom it injects prevents the blood in the body from clotting resulting in internal bleeding. 
  • Most of the cases have not been fatal but this can be concluded as there is little data available on such snakebites in the country.
  • The monocled cobra, the banded krait, the lesser black krait, the great black krait, the mountain pit viper and the redneck keelback are among the 15 most venomous snakes out of 64 recorded so far across Northeast India. 

Green Pit Vipers

  • The green tree viper is a species of tree-dwelling pit vipers that belong to the genus Trimeresurus
  • It is charaterised with bright green colour often flecked with black and has a red tail
  • It is commonly found in the hilly areas of northeast and southern India, mainly in bamboo grooves and dense foliage near streams.

Data on snakebites

  • According to available data over 1.4 million cases of snake bites are reported worldwide resulting in 1,25,000 fatalities annually.
  • Over 46,000 people die due to snakebites every year in India which is the highest on earth.
    • Out of which 77% of the victims died outside healthcare facilities.
  • Most of the snakebites are reported in India between June and September 
  • About 58% of the victims are said to be farmers and labourers.

Concerns associated with the use of antivenom in India

  • The antivenom is derived from the “Big Four” snakes in India namely Russell’s viper, Common Krait, Indian Cobra and Saw-scaled viper.
  • However, the venoms are extremely diverse across snake species such as the venom of monocled cobra from West Bengal contains mostly Neurotoxins while the same species from Arunachal Pradesh contains Cytotoxins
  • Neurotoxin affects the nervous system while Cytotoxins kill the cells in a body.
  • Hence, the antivenom used in India is a case of one size fits all approach.
  • Further, 80% of all polyvalent antivenom are derived from snakes caught in one district of Tamil Nadu which fails to address the diversity of venoms across the species.
  • Also, the antivenom is said to be largely ineffective and the doctors are seen administering more than 50 vials of antivenom for each cobra or krait bite in northern India, thereby putting the patients at risk of side effects.

Recommendations

  • The government must make efforts to declare snake bites as a notifiable disease, this will help in recording reliable data on snake bites and associated fatalities
  • The government should undertake awareness activities to educate people about the myths and stigma associated with snake bites.
  • There is a need to develop and adopt digital solutions that help address the problems in supply chain and logistics that increase access to antivenoms.
  • Experts have urged for the development of a range of antivenoms and not just that of the “Big Four” snakes.

Nut graf: The huge economic and social burden of deaths due to snakebites in India calls for a comprehensive programme by the government to address the challenges associated with tackling and curing snakebites in India.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Vice President Elections

Syllabus: GS-2, Polity; Appointment to various Constitutional posts,

Prelims: Vice President Elections

Context

The voting to elect India’s 16th Vice-President will be held in August, 2022

Vice President Elections

Eligibility

  • An Indian citizen can qualify for the post of Vice President if he is 35 years old or more.
  • The individuals must be qualified to be elected as a Rajya Sabha member.
  • An office of profit cannot be held by the Vice President of India.

Elections procedure

  • According to Article 66 of the Constitution, the Vice-President will be indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of:
    • All the members of Rajya Sabha (both elected and nominated)
    • All the members of Lok Sabha
  • Elections are conducted in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (PRSTV) and the voting takes place through a secret ballot. 
  • The Election Commission of India conducts the election to the office of the Vice-President.
  • A candidate intending to contest in the election is required to be nominated by at least 20 MPs as proposers and at least 20 MPs as seconders and the candidate is required to make a security deposit of Rs.15,000/-
  • All doubts and disputes arising in connection with the election of the Vice-President are enquired into and decided by the Supreme Court of India whose decision is binding.

To know more about – Office of Vice President

G. Tidbits

1. Bid date for submarine project extended again

  • The Defence Ministry has extended the deadline to submit responses to the Request For Proposal (RFP) in the over ₹40,000-crore deal for six advanced submarines under Project-75(I).
  • The Project 75 (India)-class submarines, or P-75I, for short, are a planned class of diesel-electric submarines, which are to be built for the Indian Navy. 
    • The P-75I class is a follow-on of the P-75 class submarines of the Indian Navy.
  • Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire six conventional, diesel-electric attack submarines, which will also feature advanced capabilities such as air-independent propulsion (AIP), ISR, special operations forces (SOF), anti-ship warfare (AShW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASuW), land-attack capabilities and other features.
  • This would provide a major boost to the indigenous design and construction capability of submarines in India, in addition to bringing in the latest submarine design and technologies as part of the project.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following can be considered advantages of millet crop cultivation over
cultivation of food grains such as rice and wheat? (Level – Medium)
  1. Lesser water requirement
  2. Can grow in less fertile soils as well
  3. Resistance to climatic stress
  4. Shorter growing cycles

Options:

  1. 1, 3 and 4 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer:

CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

  • Statement 1 is correct, Millet crop cultivation require very little water
  • Statement 2 is correct, Millets grow on less fertile and sandy soil
  • Statement 3 is correct, Millets are climate-resilient crops and have exceptional tolerance  toward diverse abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, light and heat 
  • Statement 4 is correct, Most Millets have a short growing season
Q2. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct? (Level – Medium)
  1. If the President dies or resigns or is otherwise incapacitated and as a result, the Presidential office becomes vacant, the Vice- President will act as President for a maximum period of one year.
  2. If the Vice- President is not available to discharge the duties of the President, in such a scenario the responsibilities of the Presidential office fall on the Chief Justice of India.
  3. S Radhakrishan is the only person to have served as Vice President and then later as President of India.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3.  2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Answer:

CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

  • Statement 1 is not correct, If the President dies or resigns or is otherwise incapacitated and as a result, the Presidential office becomes vacant, the Vice- President will act as President only for a maximum period of six months
  • Statement 2 is correct, If the Vice- President is not available to discharge the duties of the President and if the latter dies or resigns, the responsibilities of the office fall on the Chief Justice of India.
  • Statement 3 is not correct, There have been six instances in the past when the Vice-President of India went on to become the President. This includes Dr S Radhakrishnan, Dr Zakir Hussain, V V Giri, R Venkataraman, Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma, and K R Narayanan.
Q3. Which of the following can be considered applications of quantum computing?(Level – Easy)
  1. Artificial intelligence and machine learning
  2. Computational chemistry
  3. Drug design and development
  4. Cybersecurity and cryptography
  5. Weather forecasting

Options:

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
  2. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
  4. 1, 3 and 5 only

Answer:

CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

  • The applications Of Quantum Computing includes:
    • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    • Computational Chemistry
    • Drug Design and Development
    • Cybersecurity and Cryptography
    • Financial Modelling
    • Logistics Optimisation
    • Weather Forecasting
Q4. Consider the following architectural features. (Level – Difficult)
  1. Trabeate style
  2. Use of mortar
  3. Use of calligraphy
  4. Pietra-dura technique
  5. Arabesque method

Which of the above are features of the Indo-Islamic architecture?

  1. 1, 3 and 4 only
  2. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
  3. 2 and 5 only
  4. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

Answer:

CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

  • Indo-Islamic architecture includes features such as:
    • Arcuate style (use of archs and domes) and not Trabeate style (Construction of buildings using beams and columns)
    • Use of mortar as a cementing agent
    • Use of calligraphy to depict religious art and patterns 
    • Pietra-dura technique (mosaic)
    • Arabesque method for surface decorations based
    • Minar, Tombs and Sarais 
Q5. Consider the following statements: (Level – Medium) PYQ (2019)
  1. Asiatic Lion is naturally found in India only.
  2. Double-humped camel is naturally found in India only.
  3. One-horned rhinoceros is naturally found in India only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer:

CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

  • Statement 1 is correct, At present Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
  • Statement 2 is not correct, The double-hump camel is a native of Gobi desert, and is found on a vast expanse of cold-desert areas across Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and parts of Afghanistan
  • Statement 3 is not correct ,The Great one horned rhinoceros is commonly found in Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and in India

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

    1. What are the Supreme Court’s directives on grant of bail? Why does it recommend a separate Bail Act?           (10 Marks, 150 Words) (GS-2, Polity)
    2. Write a note on World Population Prospects and discuss the impact of India’s Population Growth on Economic Development. (10 Marks, 150 Words) (GS-1, Social Issues)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 17 July 2022:- Download PDF Here

 

 



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