04 Jun 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 04 June 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Shangri La Dialogue
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT
1. Groundwater depletion and recovery
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. What are the friction points on the LAC?
HEALTH
1. Why is India rethinking its anaemia policy?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Foucault Pendulum
G. Tidbits
1. INDUS-X & iCET
2. G20 Global Vaccine Research Collaborative
3. Centre on structural safety of dams
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

G. Tidbits

1. INDUS-X & iCET

  • U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd J. Austin expressed that the U.S.-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) enables the investigation of innovative approaches for joint development of vital defence platforms. 
  • Austin is set to meet with Indian Defense Minister Rajnath Singh in New Delhi to discuss co-development and co-production projects before Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s upcoming visit to the U.S.
  • Austin highlighted the progress made through the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), particularly in maritime cooperation, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief. 
  • Austin also criticised China for declining a meeting with defence counterparts and emphasised the need for dialogue. 

Read more on INDUS-X & iCET

2. G20 Global Vaccine Research Collaborative

  • The Indian government is collaborating with global non-profit organisations to convene and foster consensus among G-20 member states and others to establish a Global Vaccine Research Collaborative.
  • The G-20 platform is seen as a crucial facilitator of collaboration among governments, research institutions, pharmaceutical companies, and other stakeholders. 
  • The Global Vaccine Research Collaborative aims to bridge this gap and ensure equitable access to vaccines worldwide. Additionally, it seeks to optimise resources and prevent duplication of efforts.
  • The initiative will primarily focus on addressing critical gaps in vaccine research and development before the occurrence of the next pandemic. 
  • Its objectives include establishing a framework and principles for enhanced preparedness, creating mechanisms to improve coordination, and fostering an environment conducive to vaccine research and development.
  • India is promoting fair access to vaccines within the domestic market by providing financial incentives and streamlining regulatory processes to encourage vaccine manufacturers to expand their production capacity. 
    • Furthermore, steps have been taken to ensure vaccine availability in rural areas by leveraging existing healthcare facilities, such as primary health centres.

3. Centre on structural safety of dams

  • The Malviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), located in Jaipur, has been designated as the inaugural National Centre for Earthquake Safety of Dams in India. 
  • This centre aims to enhance the country’s self-sufficiency in addressing technology-related concerns regarding the structural integrity and earthquake safety of dams.
  • The centre will initiate a pilot study of specific dams with the objective of establishing and refining safety standards. 
  • Additionally, it will review the manuals of the Central Water Commission, ensuring their alignment with current practices and knowledge in the field.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements: (Level-Difficult)
  1. A Fixed-dose Combination (FDC) is a medicine that includes two or more active ingredients combined in a single dosage form.
  2. FDCs are less economic than single ingredient drugs.
  3. In case of any dispute with respect to the quality of the drug, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) is the appellate authority.

How many of the above statements are correct? 

  1. Only one 
  2. Only two 
  3. All three 
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is correct, A Fixed-dose Combination (FDC) refers to a medication that contains two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in fixed proportions within a single dosage form. These combinations are formulated to provide the therapeutic benefits of multiple drugs in a convenient and simplified manner.
  • Statement 02 is incorrect, FDCs are more economic than single ingredient drugs.
  • Statement 03 is correct, The office of the DCGI acts as an appellate authority if there is any dispute with respect to the quality of the drug. The DCGI is also responsible for the approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, I V fluids, vaccines and sera.
Q2. Consider the following pairs:  (Level-Difficult)

               Strait                      Contiguous Landmass 

  1. Formosa Strait            China and Taiwan 
  2. Yucatan Strait              Mexico and Cuba 
  3. Messina Strait             Italy and Albania 
  4. Hormuz Strait            Iran and Oman 

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched? 

  1. Only one 
  2. Only two 
  3. Only three 
  4. All four
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: The Strait of Messina is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily and Southern Italy. 

Read more on Major Straits of the world 

Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to Pygmy hog: (Level-Medium)
  1. It is the smallest species of pig in the world.
  2. Pygmy hogs only live in the wet high grasslands at the foothills of the Himalayas
  3. It is listed as a Critically Endangered species on the IUCN Red List.

How many of the above statements is/are incorrect? 

  1. Only one 
  2. Only two 
  3. All three 
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation: 

  • Pygmy Hog is listed as an ‘Endangered’ species on the IUCN Red List.
Q4. Consider the following statements: (Level-Difficult)
  1. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
  2. It causes swelling of the tissues in digestive tract.
  3. There’s no known cure for this disease, but therapies can greatly reduce its signs and symptoms.

The above statements best describe:

  1. Alkaptonuria 
  2. Chagas Disease 
  3. Crohn’s Disease
  4. Whipple Disease
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c
Explanation: 

  • Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. It causes inflammation and ulceration in any part of the digestive system, most commonly in the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine (colon).
  • Common symptoms of Crohn’s disease include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and rectal bleeding. 
  • While the exact cause of Crohn’s disease is unknown, it is believed to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. 
    • There is evidence to suggest that an abnormal immune response triggers chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, leading to the characteristic symptoms.
  • Crohn’s disease can lead to various complications, such as strictures (narrowing of the intestine), fistulas, abscesses, malnutrition, and bowel obstruction. 
  • Additionally, some individuals may experience extra-intestinal manifestations, including joint pain, skin disorders, eye inflammation, and liver conditions.
  • While there is no known cure for Crohn’s disease, various treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and control inflammation. 
Q5. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. 
The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the 
destruction of its habitat. 

Which one of the following could be that animal?  (Level-Medium) (PYQ-CSE-2011)
  1. Indian wild buffalo
  2. Indian wild ass
  3. Indian wild boar
  4. Indian gazelle
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:  The Indian Wild Ass, also known as the Khur or Ghudkhar, is a unique and endangered species of wild equids (hoofed mammals) found in the arid grasslands and desert plains of the Indian subcontinent. Their natural habitat is the Wild Ass Sanctuary in the Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

  • They are well-adapted to the harsh desert environment.
  • The Indian Wild Ass is listed as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 
  • The population of these wild asses has been steadily declining due to habitat loss, fragmentation, poaching, and competition with livestock for resources. Conservation efforts are underway to protect and increase their numbers.

Read more on Indian Wild Ass

CNA 04 June 2023:- Download PDF Here

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