Guru Ghasidas National Park, Madhya Pradesh

Famous for its varied availability of flora and fauna, Guru Ghasidas National Park, also known as Sanjay National Park, is a national park located in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh and Sidhi, Singrauli districts of Madhya Pradesh. The entirety of the national park covers a massive area of 466.657 square km. It is also a major part of the Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests ecoregion, as well as a part of the Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve.

Latest Update:

On October 5, 2021, the Guru Ghasidas National Park was declared as the 4th Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh and the 53rd in India. The Chhattisgarh government’s proposal was accepted by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) considering its importance as it acts as a corridor for tigers moving between Bandhavgarh (Madhya Pradesh) and Palamu Tiger Reserve (Jharkhand). 

These national parks and biodiversity conversation spots are important as a part of the UPSC Syllabus, and aspirants preparing for the civil services exam can expect questions based on the same in the UPSC Prelims examination.

Guru Ghasidas National Park [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

Aspirants can get the List of National Parks in India at the linked article.

UPSC 2022

History of Guru Ghasidas National Park

Location of Guru Ghasidas National Park Chhattisgarh Area

The Sanjay National Park was founded in 1983 as the Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve to work towards the protection of tigers. The entire reserve was located in Madhya Pradesh before Chhattisgarh was named a separate state in 2000. A large part of the entire tiger reserve was now under the Chhattisgarh Government, which decided to rename these parts of the National Park after Guru Ghasidas. In June of 2011, Jairam Ramesh, the Minister of State for Environment and Forests, proposed to the Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh, Raman Singh, to recognise the establishment as a tiger reserve.

The Guru Ghasidas National Park, Chhattisgarh, has been sharing five tigers with Madhya Pradesh since 2010. Further, the Asiatic Cheetah was last spotted in this National Park, which was also its last known territory in India.

Madhya Pradesh Region

The Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve was named so, as the tiger reserve was part of both the Sanjay National Park, as well as the Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary. The entirety of these landmasses covers more than 831 square km of area in the Sidhi District.

Finally, the results of an official census carried out in Madhya Pradesh in 2004 showed that the National Park was home to at least six tigers. Sadly, however, these tigers have not been spotted since October 2008.

The history of the Guru Ghasidas National Park, the Sanjay-Dubri National Park and their dimensions and details are frequently asked in the UPSC exam.

 Wildlife Found in Guru Ghasidas National Park

The Guru Ghasidas National Park is teeming with various species of flora and fauna, which makes it a major spot of attraction in Chhattisgarh.

Flora

The Guru Ghasidas National Park is mostly covered by a mix of sub-tropical and deciduous forests. The primary species of flora that covers the National Park is the Sakhua or Sal trees. Other species of vegetation found are teak, Saja, Salai, Mahua, Sisham, Kari, Gurjan, Achar, Tendu, and Bamboo, amongst several others.

Fauna

The national park and tiger reserve is teeming with wildlife of all sorts and is home to a varied and healthy ecosystem. Starting from mammals like tigers, leopards, nilgai, jackal, antelope, wild boar, bison, hyena porcupine, and various other species, the Guru Ghasidas National Park is also filled with bird species like parakeets, bulbuls, Rufus treepie, red-headed vulture, and racket-tailed drongo. Additionally, various species of reptiles like the cobra, monitor lizard, and python have also made this park their home.

Flora and fauna based on geographical locations constitute an important part of the CSE syllabus. Lately, there have been a lot of Species in the News, that captured the attention of wildlife conservationists and questions based on the same may also be asked in the upcoming competitive exams.   

Various questions have been asked in the IAS exam regarding the wildlife covering the Guru Ghasidas National Park, and this is a very important topic to study. 

India’s Newest Tiger Reserve: The Fourth in Chhattisgarh

Very recently, on the 5th of October 2021, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) approved the requests of the Chhattisgarh Government to declare two forest areas as reserve forests

  1. Guru Ghasidas National Park
  2. Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary. 

The eleventh technical Committee of the NTCA took a month to consider the idea proposed by the Chhattisgarh Government on the 1st of September and granted their request under Section 38V(1) of The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 in the first week of October. 

As argued by many wildlife experts and activists, the significance of this decision is very important, as it allows for the tigers to move between the Bandhavgarh and Palamau Tiger Reserves by connecting Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.

Aspirants can also get the latest study material based on the updated current affairs at BYJU’S and excel in the various competitive exams held in the country. 

Guru Ghasidas National Park [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

Frequently Asked Questions on Guru Ghasidas National Park

Q 1. What is a National Park?

Ans. A National Park is a naturally vegetated area of a landmass that the government tries to conserve and protect for its wildlife and environment. It aims to maintain the flora and fauna of the area in its natural conditions, which is important for maintaining the balance of the ecosystem.

Q 2. Which river passes through the Guru Ghasidas National Park?

Ans. The Banas river flows through the Guru Ghasidas National Park. It is approximately 512 km long and is a tributary of the Chambal River, which itself is the tributary of the Yamuna river.

Q 3. Why are tiger reserves important?

Ans. Tigers are one of the most endangered species in the world as they are poached for their skin and other body parts. Protecting the species is very important to ensure that it does not go extinct. Also, they play a key role in the forest food chain; hence, they need to be preserved to maintain ecological balance.

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