Tackling Stubble Burning With Pusa Decomposer

As a solution to stubble burning, the Delhi government has started using Pusa decomposer while also urging other states to adopt the method.

Recently, scientists have developed the bio-decomposing technique, namely ‘Pusa decomposers,’ to convert stubble of crops into compost. The development comes amid the problem of pollution, which occurs in Delhi and many other parts of Northern India, which are covered in smoke during the winter months due to stubble burning.

It is an important topic for the IAS exam, and comes under the environment, governance, and agriculture segments.

Complement your UPSC 2023 preparation with the following links:

Key Points About PUSA Decomposers

The pusa bio decomposer is a form of capsule prepared by extraction of fungi strains that help the paddy straw break down and decompose quicker than usual. This strain of fungi produces several essential enzymes which aid the entire degradation process.

The process of making such decomposers is an essential topic that should be covered for the preparation of UPSC Prelims. It starts by making a liquid formulation with the help of decomposer capsules which are then fermented over 8 to 10 days. The mixture is then sprayed over fields where the crop stubble is lying to aid in the speedy decomposition.

Ideally, a mixture of 25 litres can be produced with the help of 4 capsules, some jaggery, and flour made with chickpeas. Such mixture shall be sufficient to cover an area equivalent to 1 hectare of land.

After spraying such mixture over the stubble, it will take over 20 days for the same to degrade completely. In comparison, paddy straw which is shredded and watered, takes a time of at least five days to decompose completely after mixing with soil. Another problem with the conventional method of decomposition of stubble is that farmers do not get enough time to prepare their fields for wheat crops.

The bio Decomposer is prepared with a mix of seven different fungi, which produce several digestive enzymes, including pectin, cellulose, and lignin. These can be asked in current affairs, or in the current affairs quiz for the UPSC syllabus. These fungi tend to thrive at a temperature of 30 to 32 degrees Celsius, which is the ideal temperature that prevails at the time when paddy is harvested, and wheat crops are sown in the soil.

Refer to the following related links for civil services exam preparation:

Green Revolution Greenhouse Gas
MSP scheme Classification of Soil in India
Natural Vegetation in India Geomorphic Processes

Benefits Of PUSA Decomposer

If you are preparing for IAS Exam, then the topic of pusa decomposer UPSC is very relevant. The bio decomposer offers several benefits that have made it quite relevant and popular for farmers.

At the forefront, the bio decomposer helps improve and enhance the fertility levels of the soil. This, in turn, directly helps to enhance the productivity of the soil, which will help produce better yield for the farmers. The farmers can use the stubble left behind to spread manure and compost in their fields over the crops. Consequently, they will need to spend less on a separate fertilizer for their crops. This will mean direct savings for the farmers.

The soil remains rich and productive and is another main benefit that farmers can derive from the bio decomposer. The practice of stubble burning actively contributes to draining the richness of the soil and destroying all the useful bacteria which are otherwise quite useful for the soil. Additionally, stubble burning also causes depletion of fungi in the soil, which is harmful to the environment.

Using a bio decomposer is an efficient, effective, and cheaper alternative to stop the harsh practice of stubble burning. It is quite practical and easily achievable as well. Moreover, it is very environmentally friendly and ecologically safer as a technology that can help to eliminate the problem of air pollution in the major metro cities of North India. The practice of using pusa decomposers is seen as an active effort to achieve the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission. You should note the details of the bio decomposer, which is an important part of the UPSC exam.

Also, read about the Fertilizer Policy in India


The topic of pusa decomposers is likely to be asked in the UPSC 2023 exam. To ensure wholesome IAS Preparation, you should focus on covering all the important points of the topic. You should also prepare your UPSC notes or refer to additional documents to understand the problem of air pollution in the country.

Related Links
UPSC Mains Exam Government Exams
UPSC Current Affairs Quiz UPSC Prelims Exam
UPSC Monthly Magazine for Current Affairs IAS Eligibility


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