Two-Child Policy

Despite the existence of various birth control measures and various family planning programmes in force for many years to motivate the people to accept these birth control methods, the problem of population explosion still remains.

Promotion of Two-Child Norm Bill, 2015, therefore, seeks to provide for the two-child norm in a family and promote small family norms in the future generation. Bill provides for certain incentives like free education, employment, etc. to the children of such couples who adopt a small family norm. The Bill, therefore, if enacted, would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India.

Latest Context:

Recently, the Rajya Sabha introduced a private member’s bill on enacting a two-child policy in India. Principally, this bill strives to amend the Indian constitution to incentivize families of two children by providing tax rebates, concession in school, and incentives in taxation. Taking measures in this direction ahead, the state of Uttar Pradesh has adopted a two-child policy aimed to limit the growing population in the state.

This article will give details about the Two-Child Policy in India within the context of the IAS Exam.

The candidates can go through the relevant topics useful for their upcoming exams from the links provided below:

Types of Central Government Funds Important Acts in India
Child Protection In India Population Control
Tackling Infant Mortality: RSTV – Big Picture Prenatal Conception and Prenatal Determination Act (PC-PNDT)

Analysing the Two-Child Policy in India

The Indian population is increasing exponentially and will continue to multiply in the coming years. This is the higher ratio of people of married age who will give birth to children. The state of Assam and Uttar Pradesh in India has adopted the two-child policy to control the rampantly increasing population.

Proposed Provisions in the Two-Child Policy

Here are some proposed provisions in the two-child policy bill adopted by the state of Assam and Uttar Pradesh.

  • Debarment from advantages of welfare projects: Any individual with more than two kids after the regulation comes into force would get debarred from numerous advantages such as welfare schemes.
  • Barred from fighting elections at the regional level: Ration card departments would remain limited to four. The individual would get barred from fighting elections to the regional authority or any person of the local self-government.
  • Becoming non-eligible to apply for state Government employment: An individual with more than two kids would also become eligible for State government employment.
  • Barred from getting a raise: People already having full-time jobs will get barred from getting a raise in government jobs and will not get any subsidy.
  • Incentives: Numerous incentives have been offered to individuals, including public workers, if they embrace the two-child policy by undergoing willing sterilization. Such as tax rebates for individuals with two or fewer kids in the state housing facilities for more than 200 individuals.
  • One Child Bonus: People with one kid will obtain four extra increments in their employment and free healthcare and schooling until they reach the age of 20.
  • Rebates for individuals not in Government Jobs: The act says those who are not in government jobs but follow the two-child policy will gain rebates on electricity and water bills, home loans from banks, and housing tax.
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What Are Some Challenges in Adopting a Two-Child Policy in India?

Below are some challenges in adopting a two-child policy in our country.

Counter-Productive Action

The global experience indicates that any pressure to have a specific number of kids is counter-productive and points to demographic contortions.

Against Global Duties

India remains determined to its responsibilities under global law, including the regulations included in the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action of 1994.

Against the Right to Reproductive Freedom and Privacy

In the landmark case of Suchita Srivastava & Anr vs Chandigarh Administration (2009), the Supreme Court bench found that a woman making reproductive decisions is an essential element of the right to personal liberty secured by Article 21 of the Indian constitution.

Read more about Right to Life (Article 21) from the linked article.

Gender Inequality Might Increase

There is no proof to indicate that such a regulation will assist in reducing the fertility rate. Rather, professionals fear it would lead to raised gender inequality. Any coercive action is likely to exacerbate the prejudice against the girl child.

Inevitable Rise in Unsafe Abortions

In the predominant patriarchal culture, when individuals can have just two kids, the stress on women to deliver male kids will grow. Thereby leading to dangerous abortions and also skewed sex proportion.

What Is the Way Ahead in One-Child Policy Adoption in India?

Despite having a two-child policy amendment in place, India must improve its ongoing steps to make this policy more stringent by factoring in all the challenges. In addition, the Indian Government should make people aware of the rampant repercussions of an increasing population, rather than forcing the bill on the people.

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Frequently Asked Questions on Two-Child Policy


What is a two-child policy in India?

The two-child policy in India is a recent bill proposed in Parliament that makes people with more than two kids ineligible to get Government jobs and other state concessions.


Which was the first state to adopt the two-child policy in India?

Assam is one of the first two-child policy states in India.


Which other state is moving towards adopting a two-child policy?

Apart from Assam, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka are also moving towards adopting the two-child policyin India.

Other related links:

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All India Radio Spotlight for UPSC NCERT Notes For UPSC
UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-II Strategy, Syllabus & Structure Topic-Wise General Studies Paper – 2 Questions for UPSC Mains
Polity Questions and Answers for UPSC India Year Book – 5 Things to Know
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