Ethics Chapter 1 Attitude Part 9

The terms radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, are among the words most often used in political discourse. This article helps one understand the spectrum of political attitudes, get a better understanding of the spectrum very briefly, and small insights into political spectrum.

Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.

Political Attitude

The Spectrum Of Political Attitudes

The concepts of political change and political values must be discussed in relation to the  five terms in order to gain a clear understanding of what they represent. Radicals are people who find them-selves extremely discontented with the status quo.Consequently,they wish an immediate and profound change in the existing order, advocating something new and different for society.Considerably less dissatisfied, but still wishing to change the system significantly, are the liberals.All liberals share a belief in the equality, intelligence,and competence of people.Moderates find little wrong with the existing society,and their reluctance to change it is exceeded only by the conservatives.Different from liberal sin most respects, conservatives are dubious about bold efforts to improve the world for fear that in competent meddling might, indeed,  make things worse.Only there action aries reject current institutions and modern values.They would see society retrace its steps and adopt former political norms and policies . Being clear about the values people hold is usually more revealing about the place they occupy on the spectrum than simply knowing  what policy changes they advocate. Basically,people on the right of the political spectrum revere authority, tradition,elitism,and property rights,whereas those on the left emphasize political liberty, social change,human equality,and human rights.Beyond these philosophical convictions,there are several other motivations that cause people to lean to the left or right.  Psychological factors about the need for change are important.Economic circumstances also play apart. Age is another factor. Finally, one’s view about the condition of human nature is probably the most important consideration in determining with which side of the spectrumone  will identify.Each of these factors predisposes people’s political attitudes about certain policy alternatives.

Understanding The Spectrum

Before studying specific ideologies, we should develop an understanding of certain basic political concepts.  The terms radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary are among the most commonly heard words in political discussion.  Any coherent explanation of these political terms must be couched in terms discrete to a particular society because liberal or conservative positions on issues can differ from society to society. we shall study the spectrum of political attitudes as it relates in the United States because that is the dominant audience for this book.  Also, in order to study the subject, we must include consideration of two basic concepts: change and values. We will begin with an analysis of the concept of political change and then turn to an investigation of the meanings of these terms as they relate to the intent,  or political values.  Before proceeding,  however,  we should arrange we should arrange the terms radical,  liberal,  moderate, conservative, and reactionary along a continuum in order to gain a graphic perspective on them.

The Political Spectrum

When they are arrayed from left to right in this fashion, we can see certain relationships among the terms with which wear concerned. For instance, the radical is at the far left of the spectrum, and their action ary is at the opposite extreme. This alignment tell us something important. In politics,the term radical means an extremist of the left but not of the right.In everyday conversation,on the other hand,the term radical is usually used simply to refer to something extreme ,with no  reference to either side of the spectrum or any particular philosophical.


The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2020.

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