UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Surface to Surface Missile
- The Agni missile is a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles
- Agni Missiles are long range, nuclear weapons capable surface to surface ballistic missile.
- The first missile of the series, Agni-I was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program and tested in 1991.
- Agni-I – MRBM
- Agni-II – IRBM
- Agni-III – IRBM
- Agni-IV – IRBM
- Agni-V – ICBM
- Agni-VI – ICBM
MRBM – Medium range ballistic missile
IRBM – Intermediate range ballestic missile
ICBM – Intercontinental ballestic missile
A true ICBM has a minimum range of at least 8,000 km and more likely 12,000 km.
- It is capable of hitting a target at a distance of 4,000 km with 2 stage solid propellant engine.
- The missile is about 20 meters tall and weighs 17 tons.
- It is equipped with 5th generation onboard computer and distributed architecture.
- It has the latest features to correct and guide itself for in-flight disturbances. The most accurate ring laser gyro-based inertial navigation system (RINS) and supported by highly reliable redundant micro navigation system (MINGS), ensures the vehicle reaches the target within two-digit accuracy.
- The Agni V is a solid fueled ICBM with a range of 5,500 to 5,800 km.
- Agni V is nuclear capable, with a payload capacity of 1,500 kg of high-explosive warhead.
- It has inbuilt new technologies for navigation and guidance (fire and forget system).
Dhanush Ballistic Missile
- It is a surface-to-surface missile.
- It is a naval variant of India’s indigenously-developed Prithvi missile.
- It is a single-stage, liquid-propelled missile.
- Its range is 350 km.
- Nirbhay is an all-weather low-cost long-range cruise missile with stealth and high accuracy.
- The missile has a range of more than 1000 km. It weighs about one tonne and has a length of 6 metres.
- The missile is capable of being launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air.
- The missile is capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
- The Prahaar is India’s surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 kms.
- The primary objective of the conventionally armed Prahaar missile is to bridge the gap between the unguided Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (ranging 45 kms) and the guided Prithvi missile variants.
- It is indigenously developed nuclear capable surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO under IGMDP. It is deployed by India’s Strategic Forces Command.
- Prithvi I (SS-150) – Army Version (150 km (93 mi) range with a payload of 1,000 kg)
- Prithvi II (SS-250) – Air Force Version (250 km (160 mi) range with a payload of 500 kg)
- Prithvi III (SS-350) – Naval Version (350 km (220 mi) range with a payload of 1000 kg)
- The missile is thrusted by liquid propulsion twine engines.
- It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvering trajectory.
- It is the first missile to be developed by DRDO under India’s prestigious IGMDP
- The missile is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads.
- It is a canister launched hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile.
- It has a range of 750 to 1,900 km
- It gives the potential to strike in the short-intermediate range against any adversary. Shaurya can reach a velocity of Mach 7.5 even at low altitudes.
- ‘Shaurya’ missile is a two stage, solid fueled weapon with characteristics of both ballistic and cruise missiles.
- Unlike conventional cruise missiles which cruise at extremely low altitudes and subsonic speeds using turbo fan engines, ‘Shaurya’ cruises at extremely high altitudes at hypersonic speeds using rocket power.
- As for its nuclear capability, ‘Shaurya’ can carry both conventional as well as nuclear warheads. It can carry conventional warheads with a payload up to a tonne.