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05 Feb 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 05 Feb 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Cooperation in Trilateral Framework
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMICS
1. Climate Change and Hydropower Generation
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INDIAN ECONOMY
1. Is Govt. on track on fiscal deficit targets?
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. Why have mangroves got a Budget push?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Appointment of Supreme Court Judges
2. E-Courts
G. Tidbits
1. CDSCO bars Global Pharma Healthcare from making eye lubricant
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. E-Courts

Category: GS02-Polity

Prelims: E-technologies in Judiciary

Context: Union Budget 2023-24 allocated ₹7,000 crore for the third phase of the e-courts project.

Key Details:

  • The union budget for 2023-24 has allocated Rs 7,000 crore for phase III of the e-courts project that aims at using technological solutions to reduce the pendency of cases and make justice more accessible to the common man.
    • This is a big jump from the ₹639.411 crore and ₹1,670 crore spent in the first two phases.
  • The e-courts project was conceptualised under the National Policy and Action Plan for Implementation of Information and Communication Technology in the Indian Judiciary –2005 submitted by the e-committee of the Supreme Court with the aim of attuning courts with digital technology.
  • The allocation for the e-courts project, in keeping with the recommendations of the e-committee headed by Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud, comes in the midst of an ongoing confrontation between the government and the judiciary with regard to the process for the appointment of judges.
  • The e-courts project envisages use of artificial intelligence and machine learning for data analysis and reducing pendency of cases. 
  • It also focuses on developing virtual courts, going paperless by doing away with case files and digitising the entire court records.

Read more on E-Courts Project

G. Tidbits

1. CDSCO bars Global Pharma Healthcare from making eye lubricant

  • The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) has instructed Tamil Nadu-based Global Pharma Healthcare to stop manufacturing all the products under the category of ophthalmic preparation till the completion of an investigation. 
  • The move came soon after the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked the company’s eye drops to 55 adverse events in the U.S.
  • CDC have warned that the eye drops supplied by the company to distributors Aru Pharma/EzriCare and Delsam Pharma in the U.S. had been linked to adverse events, including eye infections, permanent loss of vision, and a death with a bloodstream infection.
  • Raw material called carboxymethylcellulose sodium was used for manufacturing the eye lubricant.
  • The company, which has recalled the eye drops from the market, has been placed on the FDA’s import alert list for allegedly providing an inadequate response to a records request.

Read more on Spurious Drug Menace 

Read more on Indian Pharma Winning Global Trust

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding appointment of judges in the Supreme 
Court of India: (Level – Easy)
  1. The collegium system does not provide any specific criteria for testing the candidate for the post of CJI because of which it leads to wide scope for nepotism and favouritism.
  2. SC introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”.
  3. Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, The Collegium system is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
    • The Collegium System faced a lot of criticism not only from the government but also from civil society due to its Lack of Transparency and Accountability.
    • The collegium system does not provide any specific criteria for testing the candidate for the post of CJI because of which it leads to wide scope for nepotism and favouritism.
  • Statement 02 is correct, Second Judges Case (1993) introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”. It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.
  • Statement 03 is correct, Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.
Q2. Which of the following will be soon named the world’s first heritage University? 
(Level – Moderate)
  1. Nalanda University
  2. Harvard University
  3. Visva Bharti University
  4. Takshashila University
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Founded by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921, Visva-Bharati University will soon get the ‘heritage’ tag from UNESCO to take the distinction of world’s first living heritage university.
  • Visva-Bharati is a public central university and an Institution of National Importance located in Shantiniketan, West Bengal. 
  •  In 1922, Visva-Bharati was inaugurated as a Centre for Culture with exploration into the arts, language, humanities, music and these are reflected in diverse institutes that continue in their educational programmes, which are based on the founding principles of excellence in culture and culture studies.
  • Soon after independence, the institution was given the status of a central university in 1951 by an act of the Parliament.
Q3. Consider the following statements with regards to Antrix: (Level – Moderate)
  1. Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL), Bengaluru is a wholly owned Government of India Company under the administrative control of the Department of Space.
  2. It is a marketing arm of ISRO for promotion and commercial exploitation of space products, technical consultancy services and transfer of technologies developed by ISRO.
  3. It was incorporated as a private limited company owned by Government of India in September 1992.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL) in Bengaluru is a wholly owned Government of India Company under the administrative control of the Department of Space. 
  • Antrix Corporation Limited was incorporated as a private limited company owned by Government of India in September 1992 as a Marketing arm of ISRO for promotion and commercial exploitation of space products, technical consultancy services and transfer of technologies developed by ISRO. 
  • Another major objective is to facilitate development of space related industrial capabilities in India.
  • As the commercial and marketing arm of ISRO, Antrix is engaged in providing Space products and services to international customers worldwide. With fully equipped state-of-the-art facilities, Antrix provides end-to-end solutions for many of the space products.
Q4. Which amongst the following is the official state bird of Rajasthan?(Level–Easy)
  1. Great Indian Bustard
  2. Sarus crane
  3. Indian peafowl
  4. Great hornbill
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Q5. The term “two-state solution” is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context 
of the affairs of (Level – Easy)
  1. China
  2. Israel
  3. Iraq
  4. Yemen
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation: 

  • The two-state solution refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which calls for “two states for two groups of people.” The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership insisting on the “1967 borders”, which is not accepted by Israel. 
  • The territory of the former Mandate Palestine which shall not form part of the Palestinian State, shall be part of Israeli territory. The framework of the solution is set out in UN resolutions on the “Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine”, going back to 1974. The resolution calls for “two States, Israel and Palestine … side by side within secure and recognized borders” together with “a just resolution of the refugee question in conformity with UN resolution 194”. The borders of the state of Palestine are “based on the pre-1967 borders”.

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 05 Feb 2023:- Download PDF Here

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