# 22 Jan 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 22 Jan 2022:-

A. GS 1 Related
HISTORY
1. Amar Jawan Jyoti now merged with the War Memorial flame: govt.
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY & GOVERNANCE
1. Pushback to change in IAS cadre rules
2. A-G gives nod for contempt action against Narsinghanand
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Setting sail for a powerful India-German partnership
F. Prelims Facts
1. Two States plan to revive Saraswati river
2. All set for tiger count at Bandipur, Nagarahole
3. Start-ups raised a record $24.1 bn in 2021: study G. Tidbits H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions  2. A-G gives nod for contempt action against Narsinghanand Syllabus: Structure, organization and functioning of the Judiciary Prelims: Contempt of Court Mains: A-G’s Consent to initiate contempt of court proceedings Context: – Attorney-General (A-G) gave consent to a plea to initiate contempt proceedings under arrest in the Haridwar hate speech case. Contempt of Court: – • An individual who disobeys a judge or otherwise interrupts the legal process in the courtroom is charged with contempt of court. • Criminal and civil contempt of court are the two primary forms of contempt of court. What is the procedure for bringing a criminal contempt of court case against an individual? • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, lays down the law on contempt of court. • Section 15 of the legislation describes the procedure on how a case for contempt of court can be initiated. • In the case of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General or the Solicitor General, and in the case of High Courts, the Advocate General, may bring in a motion before the court for initiating a case of criminal contempt. • However, if the motion is brought by any other person, the consent in writing of the Attorney General or the Advocate General is required. • The motion or reference made for initiating the case will have to specify the contempt of which the person charged is alleged to be guilty. Why does the Attorney General have to grant consent? • The procedure in cases of criminal contempt of court the consent of the Attorney General is required under the law. • The objective behind requiring the consent of the Attorney General before taking cognizance of a complaint is to save the time of the court. • Judicial time is squandered if frivolous petitions are made and the court is the first forum for bringing them in. • The AG’s consent is meant to be a safeguard against frivolous petitions, as it is deemed that the AG will independently ascertain whether the complaint is indeed valid. Is the AG’s consent mandatory for all contempt of court cases? • The AG’s consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person. • Before such a plea can be filed, the Attorney General must sign off on the complaint, determining if it requires the attention of the court at all. • As far as the suo motu petitions are concerned, there is no requirement for taking consent of anybody, including the learned Attorney General because the Court is exercising its inherent powers to issue a notice for contempt. What happens if the AG denies consent? • If the AG denies consent, the matter all but ends. • The complainant can, however, separately bring the issue to the notice of the court and urge the court to take suo motu cognizance. • If the court does take suo motu cognizance the consent of the senior-most law officer is not required.  Article 129: Article 129 of the Constitution gives the Supreme Court the power to initiate contempt cases on its own, independent of the motion brought before it by the AG or with the consent of the AG. What happens after the AG has granted consent? • Once the consent of the Attorney General is given in writing, a notice under The Contempt of Courts Act is served personally on the person against whom the proceedings are sought to be initiated by the court. • If the court decides not to serve the notice personally, the law requires the court to record the reasons for it. • If the court is satisfied that the alleged contemnor is likely to abscond or evade judicial proceedings, it can order attachment of property of a value that it deems reasonable. Nut Graf The Attorney General has a significant role in matters of giving consent to initiate contempt proceedings against persons who undermine the majesty of the institution and the authority vested in the Supreme Court of India. E. Editorials 1. Setting sail for a powerful India-German partnership Syllabus: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. Context: – The German Navy frigate Bayern arrival in India is a remarkable step for Indo-German relations. Background • Germany has realized that the world’s political and economic center of gravity is shifting to the Indo-Pacific region, with India as a key player and strategic partner. • Germany is determined to contribute to buttressing the rules-based international order at a time when it is exposed to grave challenges. • For Europe, it is vital that trade routes stay open, that freedom of navigation is upheld and that disputes are resolved peacefully on the basis of international law. • India is a maritime powerhouse and a strong advocate for free and inclusive trade partners on that mission. What are the Significant Aspects of India-German partnership? 1. Tackling Global Issues: – • The Indo-Pacific region is home to around 65% of the global population and 20 of the world’s 33 megacities. • The region accounts for 62% of global GDP and 46% of the world’s merchandise trade. • On the other hand, it is also the source of more than half of all global carbon emissions. • This makes the region’s countries key partners in tackling global challenges such as climate change and sustainable energy production and consumption. 1. Importance of Indo-pacific region to Germany: – • More than 20% of German trade is conducted in the Indo-Pacific neighborhood. • This is why Germany and India share a responsibility to maintain and support stability, prosperity and freedom in this part of the world. 1. Significance of Germany’s Warship Bayern: – • The Bayern participated in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and European Union missions Sea Guardian in the Mediterranean Sea and Operation ATALANTA in the Arabian Sea. • Bayern also helped monitor United Nations sanctions against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Conclusion: – As major democracies and strategic partners, India and Germany should step up their cooperation to tackle common challenges, with climate change on top of the agenda. This is an opportunity for joint and coordinated action. Together India and Germany can work on a sustainable path for India’s growth that will benefit both our countries. Nut Graf The German frigate Bayern sailed to India after traversing the South China Sea as part of Berlin’s focus on maritime and security cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, marking the first visit by a German warship to India in almost a decade. The visit of the German frigate follows forays into the Indo-Pacific by other European navies. F. Prelims Facts 1. Two States plan to revive Saraswati river Context: –In an attempt to revive the Saraswati river, the Haryana and Himachal Pradesh governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the construction of a dam in Himachal Pradesh near the Adi Badri area of Haryana’s YamunaNagar district. About Saraswati River: – • The Saraswati River is a legendary river that is revered in Vedic literature. • The river ran through Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat’s northwestern region. • It also passed through Pakistan on its way to the Western Sea via the Rann of Kutch. • Know More About River Saraswati 2. All set for tiger count at Bandipur, Nagarahole Context: –Tiger census will commence at Bandipur and Nagarahole National Park. Tiger Census in India: – • The national tiger census is conducted once every four years. • The Nation-wide tiger census was earlier held in 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018. • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) conducts tiger censuses in partnership with state forest departments, conservation NGOs, and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). • Know More About Tiger Census 3. Start-ups raised a record$24.1 bn in 2021: study

Context: – According to a new study, Start-ups have seen a two-fold increase over pre-COVID-19 levels.

Findings of ‘Indian Tech Start-up Ecosystem: Year of The Titans’ Study

• Numerous start-ups were added in 2021, over 600 more than what was added in the previous year.
• Start-ups raised USD 24.1 billion in 2021, a two-fold increase over pre-COVID levels.
• There was a 3X increase in the number of high value deals.
• Know More About Startup India
• About 50% of the deals had at least one India-domiciled investor.
• It said that more than \$6 billion has been raised via public markets with 11 start-up IPOs in 2021.
• Know More About Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. The Living Root Bridges which are like a suspension bridge formed with living plant roots
by tree shaping is seen in the State of
1. Kerala
2. Odisha
3. Meghalaya
4. Chhattisgarh

Explanation:

• The Living Root Bridges in Meghalaya  are made from rubber tree roots also known as Ficus elastica tree.
• The double-decker root bridge in Cherrapunji and the single-decker root bridge in Shillong are unique living root bridges in the world.
• Hence Option C is correct.
Q2. Which of the following are public authorities under the Right to Information Act?
1. Election Commission
2. Indian Olympic Association
3. Non-Governmental Organization
4. SEBI

Options:

1. 1, 2 and 3 only
2. 2, 3 and 4 only
3. 1, 2 and 4 only
4. 1, 3 and 4 only

Explanation:-

• “Public authority” is defined in Section 2(h) of the RTI Act. The “public authority” means any authority or body or institution of self government established or constituted—
• (a) by or under the Constitution;
• (b) by any other law made by Parliament;
• (c) by any other law made by State Legislature;
• (d) by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government,
• and includes any—
• (i) body owned, controlled or substantially financed;
• (ii) non-Government organization substantially financed.
• The definition clearly delineate bodies created
• by the Constitution of India (Union and state executives, Election Commission, etc.),
• by laws made by Parliament and state legislatures (Central and state universities, regulators such as RBI, SEBI, TRAI etc.), and
• by government orders or notifications as public authorities.
• Hence Option C is correct.
Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to Contempt of court:
1. The Attorney General’s (AG) consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person
2. The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, has a limitation period of two years for bringing in action against an individual.
3. Supreme Court has the power to initiate contempt cases on its own, independent of the motion brought before it by the AG or with the consent of the AG

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

1. 1 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, lays down the law on contempt of court.
• In the case of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General or the Solicitor General, and in the case of High Courts, the Advocate General, may bring in a motion before the court for initiating a case of criminal contempt.
• The AG’s consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person. Hence Statement 1 is correct.
• The Contempt of Court Act, 1971 provides for limitation for filing contempt petitioner within 1 year(NOT 2) for bringing in action against an individual. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
• Article 129 of the Constitution gives the Supreme Court the power to initiate contempt cases on its own, independent of the motion brought before it by the AG or with the consent of the AG. Hence Statement 3 is correct.
Q4. Consider the following statements with respect to Saraswati River:
1. It is a major Rig Vedic River
2. It is part of the Sapta Sindhu rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda.
3. The River had originated from Kapal tirith in the Himalayas in the west of Kailash

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• The Saraswati is a major Rig Vedic river mentioned in the Rig Veda and other Vedic texts.
• It is part of the Sapta Sindhu rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda.
• The river, which had formed in the Himalayas west of Kailash at Kapal tirith, was flowing southward to Mansarovar before turning westward.
• Hence All the Statements are correct.
Q5. The term M-STRIPES’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of [PYQ (2017)]
1. Captive breeding of Wild Fauna
2. Maintenance of Tiger Reserves
4. Security of National Highways

Explanation:

Monitoring System for Tiger-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status(M-STRIPES)

• The Indian government launched M-STrIPES, a software-based monitoring system, across Indian tiger reserves.
• The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has improved the monitoring system for tigers in the country’s tiger reserves (TRs) by adopting M-STrIPES.
• Hence Option B is correct.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. Public funding is a sound method of increasing capital expenditure in the nation when the government is facing a funds crunch. Comment. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-3, Infrastructure]
2. How can deepening of India – Germany relations work in the interest of both the nations? Give examples to substantiate your answer. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-2, Infrastructure Relations]