13 June 1290
Khalji Dynasty established
The Khalji Dynasty was established in Delhi with the ascension of Jalal-ud-din Khalji as the Sultan of Delhi on 13 June 1290. This is a part of medieval Indian history and hence, important for the UPSC exam.
- In the beginning of the year 1290 AD, the Mamluk dynasty was ruling Delhi. Muiz ud din Qaiqabad was the tenth and the last ruler of the line. He is believed to have been killed by Jalal-ud-din Khalji. When a group of nobles of Qaiqabad placed his infant son, Kayumars at the throne, Jalal-ud-din killed them and deposed the infant.
- Jalal-ud-din then usurped the throne and became the Sultan of Delhi on 13 June 1290. This marked the beginning of the Khalji dynasty in Delhi.
- Jalal-ud-din, born Firuz, was a member of the Khalji tribe which was Turkic in origin. However, since the tribe had been settled in Afghanistan for some time, they were considered to be Afghans in the Delhi court.
- Malik Firuz, as Jalal-ud-din had been known before he became the Sultan, was originally a military officer in the army of the Mamluk dynasty. Qaiqabad had promoted him to an important position in the army because he had been successful in repelling Mongol invasions.
- In 1296, Jalal-ud-din was murdered by his nephew and son-in-law Alauddin Khalji who then assumed the title, Sultan of Delhi.
- Alauddin annexed more territories in the southern part of the country and extended the sultanate. His generals acquired huge war spoils from the southern kingdoms which helped fortify the Khalji rule. The famous Koh-i-noor diamond was looted from the Kakatiya dynasty in Warangal in 1310 by Alauddin’s army.
- He also raided the other Hindu kingdoms of Chittorgarh, Ranthambhor, Devagiri and Mandu. He was known for his ferocity and ruthlessness in dealing with the kingdoms he raided and also against people suspected of being against him. He tried to reform the market system and the administration. He also imposed taxes on non-Muslims. His restrictive economic reforms led to food shortages and famines in north India.
- Alauddin ruled for 20 years. After his death in 1315, his general Malik Kafur became the king but was killed within a few months.
- The next three years saw three sultans assume power only to be killed in various coups. After Malik Kafur, a 6-year-old son of Alauddin, Shihab-ud-din Omar was placed on the throne with his brother Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah as the regent. Omar was killed by Mubarak Shah who then became the Sultan.
- Mubarak Shah was in turn murdered by one of his generals Khusraw Khan. Khusraw Khan, who had become the Sultan, was killed by an army commander Ghazi Malik. Ghazi Malik then ascended to the throne of Delhi and assumed the name Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, which marked the beginning of the Tughlaq dynasty.
To know more about the Delhi Sultanate, click here.
Also on this day
1909: Birth of E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first Chief Minister of Kerala and the first non-INC Chief Minister in India. 1997: The Uphaar Cinema fire in which 59 people were killed occurred at Uphaar Cinema, Delhi.
See previous ‘This Day in History’ here.