TABLE OF CONTENTS
A.GS1 Related B.GS2 Related POLITY 1. SC issues notice to T.N., Karnataka on EWS Quota 2. Lok Sabha passes Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. U.K. joins U.S. to ensure the safety of vessels in Gulf 2. U.S., South Korea defy North’s warnings, begin joint drills 3. Donald Trump slams white supremacy and bigotry C.GS3 Related ECONOMY 1. Government unveils draft e-com norms 2. Central banks ‘fall guys’ for populist mistakes, says former RBI Chief D. GS4 Related E. Editorials POLITY 1. Jammu And Kashmir: Article 370 Scrapped F. Tidbits 1. RBI penalises 11 banks for violations 2. Putin wants arms talks with U.S. to avoid 'chaos' 3. Australian cancer patient first to use assisted dying law 4. Kerala journalist death: IAS Officer suspended by the State government 5. One Country, Two Systems G. Prelims Facts G. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS2 Related
The Supreme Court asked the Tamil Nadu and Karnataka governments to reply to a petition seeking that they implement the 10% quota for economically weaker sections (EWS), in addition to the existing reservation.
- The 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019, granted 10% reservation to the EWS category in government jobs and educational institutions.
- Except for Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, all other State governments have implemented the reservation.
- Tamil Nadu has already granted 69% quota to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes and the Most Backward Classes.
- The EWS reservation is presumably to be implemented without disturbing the already existing quota benefits to the population belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes and the Most Backward Classes.
- Some of the regional parties in Tamil Nadu are opposing the 10% EWS quota for EWS.
- The ceiling of 50% vertical reservation for SC, ST and BC was a judicial determination and not prescribed or mandated in the Constitution.
To know more about the reservation in India, watch:
The Lok Sabha on Monday passed the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 by a voice vote.
- The Bill regulates altruistic surrogacy and prohibits commercial surrogacy.
- It defines surrogacy as a practice where a woman gives birth to a child for an eligible couple and agrees to hand over the child to them after birth.
- Altruistic surrogacy: It involves a surrogacy arrangement where the monetary reward only involves medical expenses and insurance coverage for the surrogate mother.
- Commercial surrogacy: This type of surrogacy includes a monetary benefit or reward (in cash or kind) that exceeds basic medical expenses and insurance for the surrogate mother.
Other Provisions in the Bill:
- There is also a provision for constituting a National Surrogacy Board, State Surrogacy Boards, and the appointment of appropriate authorities for the regulation of the practice and process of surrogacy.
- The Bill is aimed at ending the exploitation of women who are lending their womb for surrogacy and protecting the rights of children born through this.
- The Bill also ensure the couples that opt for surrogacy that there are laws protecting them against exploitation by clinics.
- The bill adds that the couple intending to commission a surrogacy arrangement must be a close relative of the surrogate mother.
- In addition, the couple has to be Indian citizens who have been married for at least five years and are in the age group of 23-50 years (female partner) and 26-55 years (male partner).
- It also requires the couple to secure a medical certificate stating that either or both partners are infertile.
- The couple also should not have any surviving child (whether biological, adopted or surrogate), except if the surviving child is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from a fatal illness, among other provisions.
- The surrogate mother, apart from proving that she is a close relative of the couple intending the surrogacy, has to be married with a child of her own, in the age bracket of 25 to 35 years old, and should not have been a surrogate mother before.
- The Bill also states that any child born out of a surrogacy procedure shall be the biological child of the intending couple and will be entitled to all rights and privileges that are available to a natural child.
Problems related to Commercial Surrogacy:
- There are very few countries in the world which allow commercial surrogacy.
- Commercial surrogacy is widely perceived as exploitation and abuse of human dignity.
- Women in our country are being exploited without even understanding it.
- Britain joined the U.S. in a maritime security mission in the Gulf to protect merchant vessels travelling through the Strait of Hormuz after Iran seized a British vessel.
- Tensions have risen between Iran and the West since last year when the U.S. pulled out of an international agreement which curbed the Islamic Republic’s nuclear programme in return for an easing of economic sanctions on Iran.
- Iran has retaliated by resuming uranium enrichment seen in the West as a potential conduit to developing an atom bomb.
- But it faces severe economic damage under intensified U.S. sanctions designed to strangle its vital oil trade.
- In July, British forces seized an Iranian oil tanker near Gibraltar, accused it of violating sanctions on Syria.
- Then Iran seized a British tanker in the Strait of Hormuz for alleged marine violations.
- It allowed a second one to proceed after issuing a warning.
- Britain said on July 25 that it had started sending a warship to accompany all British-flagged vessels through the Strait of Hormuz.
- Describing the seizure of the Stena Impero in the Strait of Hormuz as illegal, Britain has rejected the idea that it could release the Iranian tanker in exchange for the British-flagged vessel seized by the Revolutionary Guards.
- Earlier, Britain was calling for a European-led naval mission to solve the problems in the Gulf.
- Now, it has joined a U.S.-led “International Maritime Security Mission”.
- No other nations are yet involved.
- Joining the U.S. is the most significant non-Brexit foreign policy move by the new Prime Minister.
- However, the British officials stressed that there was no change to London’s policy on Iran.
Seoul and Washington began their annual joint military exercises on Monday, defying warnings from Pyongyang that the war games would jeopardise nuclear negotiations between the U.S. and North Korea.
- The drills come after North Korea tested a series of short range projectiles in recent days.
- North Korea even called one of the tests as a “solemn warning” to Seoul against pursuing the mainly computer simulated drills with Washington.
- South Korea is keen to maintain its readiness posture against any military action by North Korea.
- Under the U.S. South Korea security treaty, an American general will take command of their combined forces in the event of armed conflict.
- However, South Korea has long sought to reverse the position.
The recent mass shootings have prompted U.S President to slam the hate crimes associated with the attacks.
- On Saturday, a gunman killed 20 people at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, and several Mexican citizens were among those killed.
- Just 13 hours later, another gunman in downtown Dayton, Ohio, killed nine people. Dozens were also wounded in the attacks.
- The man arrested for the Texas attack reportedly had racist motives.
- Trump said that Americans must condemn racism, bigotry, sinister ideologies and white supremacy.
- He also called for monitoring of the Internet, mental health reforms and wider use of the death penalty in response to mass slayings.
- However, he continued to back off on a strong gun control law, apparently due to a reluctance over getting into a fight with the National Rifle Association.
- Trump added that he will direct the Department of Justice to investigate domestic terrorism and propose legislation to ensure that those who commit hate crimes and mass murders face the death penalty.
- Trump had earlier called for strong background checks on gun buyers.
- He also accused video games and a culture of celebrating violence as reasons behind the attacks.
C. GS3 Related
The Department of Consumer Affairs has released the draft ‘e-commerce guidelines for consumer protection, 2019’.
- The draft is open for stakeholder comments for 45 days or till September 16, 2019.
- The guidelines apply to business-to-consumer e-commerce, including goods and services.
- The guiding principles are expected to prevent fraud, unfair trade practices and to protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.
- It emphasis on protecting the interest of online shoppers by stating that an e-commerce entity cannot directly or indirectly influence the price of the goods or services.
- It added that e-commerce firms need to ensure that personally identifiable information of customers is protected.
- It requires every e-commerce entity to publish the name and contact details of the grievance officer on their website along with the mechanism by which users can lodge their complaints.
- As per the draft, an e-commerce firm cannot falsely represent themselves as consumers or post reviews about goods and services in their name.
- Besides, it proposes to make it mandatory for firms to display terms of contract with the seller relating to return, refund, exchange, warranty/guarantee, delivery/shipment, mode of payments and grievance redressal mechanism to enable consumers to make informed decisions.
- The draft also proposes that once an e-commerce firm comes to know about any counterfeit product, and if the seller is unable to provide any evidence that the product is genuine, the firm needs to take down the listing and notify the consumers of the same.
- Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Raghuram Rajan said that Central banks became fell for the populist mistakes made by governments.
What are his apprehensions?
- Easing monetary policy may encourage riskier play by govt.
- A central bank’s mandate requires it to ease monetary policy when growth is flagging, even when the government’s own policies are the problem.
- Though the central bank is still autonomous, it effectively becomes a dependent follower of the government.
- Such actions by the central banks could even encourage the government to implement riskier policies.
- Populist leaders may mistakenly believe the central bank can do more to rescue the economy from their policy mistakes than it actually can deliver.
- Central bankers “are not immune to public attack” since they know that they are being set up to take the fall in case the economy falters.
- In the past, the cost would have been higher inflation over the medium term; today, it is more likely that the cost will be more future financial instability.
- This possibility will tend to depress market interest rates further rather than elevating them.
What is the Solution?
- Rajan recommends that the central bankers have to explain to the public what their role is and why it is more than “simply moving interest rates up or down on a whim”.
D. GS4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,
(a) The provisions of Article 238 shall not apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir;
(b) The power of Parliament to make laws for the said State shall be limited to
- those matters in the Union List and the Concurrent List which, in consultation with the Government of the State, are declared by the President to correspond to matters specified in the Instrument of Accession governing the accession of the State to the Dominion of India as the matters with respect to which the Dominion Legislature may make laws for that State; and
- such other matters in the said Lists as, with the concurrence of the Government of the State, the President may by order specify Explanation For the purposes of this article, the Government of the State means the person for the time being recognized by the President as the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers for the time being in office under the Maharajas Proclamation dated the fifth day of March, 1948 ;
(c) The provisions of Article 1 and of this article shall apply in relation to that State;
(d) such of the other provisions of this Constitution shall apply in relation to that State subject to such exceptions and modifications as the President may by order specify: Provided that no such order which relates to the matters specified in the Instrument of Accession of the State referred to in paragraph (i) of sub clause (b) shall be issued except in consultation with the Government of the State: Provided further that no such order which relates to matters other than those referred to in the last preceding proviso shall be issued except with the concurrence of that Government
(2) If the concurrence of the Government of the State referred to in paragraph (ii) of sub clause (b) of clause (1) or in the second proviso to sub clause (d) of that clause be given before the Constituent Assembly for the purpose of framing the Constitution of the State is convened, it shall be placed before such Assembly for such decision as it may take thereon
(3) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this article, the President may, by public notification, declare that this article shall cease to be operative or shall be operative only with such exceptions and modifications and from such date as he may specify: Provided that the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State referred to in clause (2) shall be necessary before the President issues such a notification
What is Article 370?
- Included in the Constitution on October 17, 1949, Article 370 exempts J&K from the Indian Constitution (except Article 1 and Article 370 itself) and permits the state to draft its own Constitution.
- It restricts Parliament’s legislative powers in respect of J&K.
- The provision was incorporated in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions.
- As evident from the title of the Part, it was supposed to be a temporary provision and its applicability was projected to last till the formulation and adoption of the State’s constitution.
Application of 370
- However, the State’s constituent assembly dissolved itself on 25 January 1957 without recommending either abrogation or amendment of the Article 370, leaving the status of the provision on a cliffhanger.
- The provision was later held to have acquired permanent status by way of rulings of the Supreme Court of India and the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir.
- This implied that to apply a central law to the state on subjects included in the Instrument of Accession, mere “consultation” with the state government is required.
- However, to apply a central legislation to matters other than defence, foreign affairs and communications, ‘concurrence” of the state government was mandatory.
Jammu and Kashmir Constitution
- Article 3-> Relationship of the State with the Union of India:-The State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India.
- In the Preamble to the Constitution, not only is there no claim to sovereignty, but there is categorical acknowledgement about the object of the J&K Constitution being “to further define the existing relationship of the state with the Union of India as its integral part thereof.
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has imposed monetary penalties on 11 banks for non-compliance with certain provisions on fraud classification and reporting norms.
- The fines, ranging from ₹50 lakh to ₹1.5 Cr., were imposed by the central bank on Bank of Baroda, Corporation Bank, Federal Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Jammu & Kashmir Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Punjab and Sind Bank, Punjab National Bank, State Bank of India, UCO Bank, and United Bank of India.
- Even as the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) have initiated criminal proceedings, the banks had delayed/ did not report fraud to RBI resulting in non-compliance with directions.
- Russian President Vladimir Putin urged the U.S. to start arms talks following the withdrawal of Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces treaty.
- He said Russia would follow suit if the U.S. develops new missiles.
- A 61-year-old cancer patient has become the first person in over two decades to die under controversial assisted dying laws in Australia.
- Kerry Robertson died in July, three months after she ceased treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
- She decided to stop receiving treatment in March when the side effects of chemotherapy were no longer manageable and took medication to end her life after a 26-day approval process.
- The State of Victoria passed a law in 2017 to legalise the practice, which went into effect this June.
- Euthanasia had previously been legal in Australia’s Northern Territory, but those laws were overturned in a contentious move by the federal government in 1997.
- The State government on Monday suspended IAS officer Sriram Venkitaraman from service.
- The bureaucrat was arrested earlier for having run his car fatally over journalist K. M. Basheer in an allegedly drunken state.
- The police had charged the civil servant with culpable homicide not amounting to murder.
- The officer will face up to ten years of imprisonment and fine if convicted of the charge.
- The police received a lot of public criticism for allegedly according Mr. Venkitaraman leeway to dodge the law by not insisting that doctors take his blood sample to test for alcohol impairment immediately after the collision.
- The high-profile probe was handed over to Additional Director General of Police, Law and Order.
- Hong Kong protesters pose challenge to the ‘one country, two systems’ framework in relation to China.
- The police continued to clash with the pro-Democracy protesters.
G. Prelims Facts
Nothing here for today!!!
H. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam
Q1. Consider the statements about the World Trade Organization:
- It is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
- WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments.
- The primary purpose of the WTO is to open trade for the benefit of all.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1,2 and 3
Q2. Which of the following languages have been recognized as classical languages by the Government of India?
- Braj bhasha
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 1,2 and 3
d) 1 and 3 only
Q3. Which of the following were founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
- Brahmo Samaj
- Tattwabodhini Sabha
- Atmiya Sabha
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 1, 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3 only
Q4. The concept of Tirthankaras is related with which of the following philosophies?
d) Bhakti Movement
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- The performance of Parliament has witnessed a decline in terms of the number of bills passed and the overall time utilized for discussing the bills. Does it mean that democracy is under risk? Critically analyse. (250 words, 15 marks)
- India’s federal character is enriched and not betrayed by the special status provided to some States in the Constitution. Critically analyse. (250 words, 15 marks)
Read previous CNA.