27 Nov 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 27 Nov 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. India urged to spell out ‘firm policy’ on Tibetan community
SOCIAL ISSUES
1. Over 50% of Bihar population multidimensionally poor: NITI
2. Won’t add to vaccine hesitancy: SC
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Omicron new variant of concern
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL ISSUES
1. A close reading of the NFHS-5, the health of India
ECONOMY
1. Indian agriculture needs a Verghese Kurien
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Shore up the lifeline
F. Prelims Facts
1. Show that celebrated 200 years of Bengal art to shut down
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: SOCIAL ISSUES

1. Over 50% of Bihar population multidimensionally poor: NITI

Context:

Over 50% of Bihar’s population is classified as multidimensionally poor, according to the government think tank NITI Aayog’s Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

Details:

National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Report on Bihar:

  • In Bihar, 50% of the population was classified as “multidimensionally poor.”
  • Among all the States and Union Territories, Bihar has the highest percentage of people living in poverty.
  • Bihar has the highest poverty rate at 51.91 percent, followed by Jharkhand (42.16 percent), Uttar Pradesh (37.79 percent), Madhya Pradesh (36.65 percent), and Meghalaya (32.67 percent).

Other States

  • Kerala has the lowest rate of poverty (0.71 percent), followed by Puducherry (1.72 percent), Lakshadweep (1.82 percent), Goa (3.76 percent), and Sikkim (3.82 percent ).
  • Tamil Nadu (4.89 percent), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (4.30 percent), Delhi (4.79 percent), Punjab (5.59 percent), Himachal Pradesh (7.62 percent), and Mizoram (9.8%) are among the states and union territories where fewer than 10% of the population is impoverished.

Additional Information

National Multidimensional Poverty Index

  • A national Multidimensional Poverty Index is a poverty metric that is adapted to each country’s specific circumstances.
  • Niti Aayog, an Indian think tank, produces the National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).
  • The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) created rigorous methods for it.

What is multidimensional poverty?

  • Multidimensional poverty refers to the multiple deprivations that poor people face on a daily basis, such as poor health, a lack of education, insufficient living standards, disempowerment, low employment quality, the fear of violence, and living in ecologically hazardous places, to name a few.
  • In order to formulate policies aiming at alleviating poverty and hardship in a nation, a multidimensional measure of poverty might include a variety of indicators that represent the complexity of this phenomenon.

2. Won’t add to vaccine hesitancy: SC

Context:

Recently, the Supreme Court made it clear that it will not do anything to bring on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

Details:

What is Vaccine Hesitancy?

  • Vaccine hesitation is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “a delay in accepting or refusing immunisation notwithstanding the availability of vaccination services.”
  • Aspects of vaccination hesitancy:
    • Despite the availability of vaccination services, there is a delay in accepting, or refusing immunizations.
    • Is complicated and context-dependent, shifting according to time, place, and vaccination.
    • Complacency, convenience, and confidence are all elements that impact this.

Vaccine Hesitancy Challenge For India

  • Vaccine hesitancy has hampered a number of government programmes, including polio eradication, even before the Covid epidemic.
  • For a number of causes, including a lack of health knowledge, it has been more frequent in rural regions.
  • In India, misdirected scepticism and false information regarding vaccinations pose a significant threat to the pandemic’s abolition and achievement of herd immunity.
  • Due to a lack of information, a bigger share of the populace remains concerned about them.
  • High vaccine hesitancy is fueled by a lack of trust in the safety and efficacy of newly developed vaccines, fear of side effects, rumours about infertility and death after receiving the vaccine, as well as the inconvenience of registration/booking slots, low-risk perception from Covid-19, and the absence of incentives for rural and urban poor, among other factors.

Solutions to Overcome Vaccine Hesitancy in India:

  1. Need for Targeted Strategy: A targeted strategy focused on the needs and concerns of people, groups, and communities will be necessary to overcome Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy.
  2. Providing incentives and timely information:
    1. Local influencers, religious leaders, traditional healers, local NGOs, local physicians, panchayat heads, and others may play a role in increasing vaccination adoption.
    2. Vaccination sites might be set up in locations that people trust, such as temples and mosques, Election Commission offices, and so on.
  3. Raising Awareness through campaigns: There should be public campaigns like “I am pleased to be vaccinated” which can raise awareness and generate momentum for vaccines in low-uptake areas.
  4. Increasing Vaccination through Nationalism: Indelible ink, which is commonly used in elections, can be put to the fingertips of those who have been vaccinated. A programme like this may instil a sense of nationalism and inspire participation.
  5. Compensating for Vaccination:
    1. Small incentives (1 kg rice and pulses, 1 litre cooking oil, etc.) can be given to compensate people for the time and money they spend getting the vaccine.
    2. Given that a large portion of the rural population works as daily wagers and is concerned about missing a day’s pay as a result of vaccination, employees may be paid a one-day MGNREGA payment in exchange for getting the injection.
  6. Behavioural Change: The behaviour innovations such as announcing prize money (lucky draw) among those vaccinated in selected low-uptake centres can help to increase vaccination rates.

Category: ECONOMY

1. Indian agriculture needs a Verghese Kurien

Context

This editorial highlights the contribution of Verghese Kurien and the significance of the Amul Cooperative model.

Verghese Kurien

  1. Who was Verghese Kurien & what were his contributions?
  • Dr Verghese Kurien was a chairman of Amul, an Indian cooperative dairy company.
  • He is also called ‘the father of the White Revolution’ in the country.
  • Verghese Kurien is known for transforming India’s dairy’s sector; his contribution made the country the largest milk producer in the world.
  • “India’s place in the sun will come from the partnership between the wisdom of its rural people and the skill of its professionals”, captures the essence of his life and mission.
  1. Influence of Gandhian Thoughts:
  • Kurien’s enthusiasm for the cooperative model was influenced by Gandhian ideas on poverty alleviation and social development.
  • He thought that co-operatives were the most physical incarnation of Mahatma Gandhi’s powerful insight that “what the world needs is not mass production, but production by the masses.”
  • He also questioned the business sector’s objectives in terms of social responsibility.
  • He argued that profit drove much of the corporate sector, rather than public benefit.

Agriculture and Amul

  1. Issues in Agricultural Sector:
  • In India, the cooperative movement is in a state of change. It has suffered as a result of a lack of competent management, inadequate funding, and low technological uptake.
  • Suicides among farmers are not uncommon, and they weigh hard on the nation’s conscience.
  • Meanwhile, the epidemic has widened the gap between urban and rural areas.
  • In rural India, incomes are decreasing, and the country appears to be on the verge of a major human disaster.
  1. Significance of Amul in Agriculture:
  • The success of Amul has sparked similar movements in other agricultural commodities in India.
  • The private sector excels in areas such as marketing and management, branding, and technology, and sets benchmarks for firms all around the world to follow and adapt.
  • Simultaneously, Amul was progressively establishing itself as a laboratory, creating important inventions and inventing its own technologies, which have bolstered its competitiveness against global firms.
  1. Case Study: Amul Cooperative Model
  • Amul has steadily expanded its product line and added new ones, building on the strong foundation created by its visionary leader.
  • Amul is still one of India’s most well-known food brands, and other dairy cooperatives such as Nandini in Karnataka, Aavin in Tamil Nadu, and Verka in Punjab look up to it for inspiration.

Conclusion

India’s digital revolution has bypassed the agriculture sector. India should focus on smart villages and development models such as Amul.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. Shore up the lifeline

Context

Recent reports have highlighted the issue of funds for the MGNREGS scheme.

Fund Crunch and MGNREGS

  • The MGNREGS scheme is experiencing a shortage of funds as a result of increased demand and low authorised investment in the Union Budget for the current fiscal year.
  • The strong demand reflects the pandemic’s widespread effects in rural regions, and a continued shortage of money will hinder any future demand for labour in these areas, in addition to delaying compensation for those who have already done work.

MGNREGS During Covid-19

  • The effects of the pandemic lockdowns have continued to decrease job numbers and rural wage rates, which is why the MGNREGS has proven to be a popular source of employment and salaries.
  • In fact, even during the pandemic’s economic crisis, the agricultural sector aided the poor by giving them guaranteed employment under the plan.
  • According to activists following the scheme’s implementation, payment delays and a shortage of finances have resulted in a 20% unmet demand in Bihar, Telangana, and Gujarat.

For detailed information on the above topics refer to the following article:

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

F. Prelims Facts

1. Show that celebrated 200 years of Bengal art to shut down

Context:

Recently, the announcement was made to shut down the popular museum-exhibition Ghare Baire in Kolkata.

Details:

  • Ghare Baire is a notable Kolkata museum exhibition that presents two centuries of Bengali art.
  • The museum-exhibition opened on January 11, 2020, on BBD Bagh, popularly known as Dalhousie Square, in the refurbished Currency Building, which was established in 1833 and nearly demolished in 1996.
  • The name Ghare Baire comes from the title of Rabindranath Tagore’s famous work, which prompted Satyajit Ray to produce a film with the same name.
  • The art museum Ghare Baire focuses on Bengali art from the 18th to the 20th century.

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following are the works of Rabindranath Tagore?
  1. Satya Ke Prayog 
  2. Gitanjali
  3. Ghare Baire
  4. Sonar Tori

Options:

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Rabindranath Tagore was not only the first Asian to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature, but also the first non-European to do so.
  • Tagore was the author of two national anthems. For India, “Jana Gana Mana” and for Bangladesh, “Amar Sonar Bangla.”
  • He played an important part in modernising Bengali poetry and prose. Gitanjali, Ghare-Baire, Gora, Manasi, Balaka, and Sonar Tori are among his major works. He is also known for his song ‘Ekla Chalo Re.’
  • Hence Option B is correct. 
Q2. Consider the following statements:
  1. Constitution Day is celebrated in our country on 26th January every year to commemorate the enactment of the Constitution of India.
  2. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 2015 notified the decision of Government of India to celebrate the Constitution Day every year to promote Constitution values among citizens.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None 
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Every year on November 26th (Not on 26th January), Constitution Day, also known as ‘Samvidhan Divas,’ is commemorated in our nation to honour the promulgation of the Indian Constitution. The Constituent Assembly of India enacted the Indian Constitution on November 26, 1949, and it went into force on January 26, 1950. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect. 
  • On November 19, 2015, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment announced that the Government of India has decided to commemorate the 26th of November each year as ‘Constitution Day’ in order to promote constitutional principles among citizens. Hence Statement 2 is correct. 
Q3. With reference to the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to grant Special Leave, 
which of the following statements is/are incorrect?
  1. It can be granted against any court or tribunal in the country. 
  2. It is a discretionary power of the Supreme Court and cannot be claimed as a matter of right. 
  3. It is applicable to constitutional, civil  and criminal matters. 

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only 
  3. 3 only 
  4. 2 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • The Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal from any judgement rendered by any court or body in the country at its discretion (except military tribunal and court martial). Hence Statement 1 is incorrect. 
  • As a result of such a special leave appeal, the Supreme Court can either approve or reject the appellant’s application, because the Supreme Court has the discretionary ability to accept or reject such an application. Hence Statement 2 is correct. 
  • In matters of right for parties in civil, criminal, and constitutional proceedings, the supreme court gives special permission to special appeal.  Hence Statement 3 is correct. 
Q4. Consider the following pairs:

       Islands                  Dispute

  1. Kuril                Japan- Russia
  2. Senkaku          China- Japan
  3. Dokdo           Japan- South Korea

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands is the subject of a territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation. 
  • The Senkaku Islands dispute is a territorial dispute between Japan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) over uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan.
  • South Korea and Japan have a territorial dispute over the Liancourt Rocks. Both nations claim ownership over the Liancourt Rocks, a collection of tiny rocks in the Sea of Japan. It is known as “Dokdo” in Korean language.
  • Hence All the Statements are Correct.
Q 5: Who among the following is associated with ‘Songs from Prison’, a translation of ancient 
Indian religious lyrics in English?
  1. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
  4. Sarojini Naidu
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • In 1934, Mahatma Gandhi was affiliated with “Songs from Prison,” an English translation of traditional Indian devotional hymns.
  • Hence Option C is Correct. 

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Critically examine India’s Tibet policy. In the light of long-standing Chinese assertion in the region, do you think India should be more aggressive and better utilize the leverage it has in Tibet? Comment.[GS-2, India’s foreign policy]
  2. Identify the various bottlenecks in India’s health delivery mechanism. Also suggest appropriate solutions to the problem. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-2, Social Justice]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 27 Nov 2021:- Download PDF Here

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