CNA 27 Nov 2021:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. India urged to spell out ‘firm policy’ on Tibetan community SOCIAL ISSUES 1. Over 50% of Bihar population multidimensionally poor: NITI 2. Won’t add to vaccine hesitancy: SC C. GS 3 Related SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1. Omicron new variant of concern D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials SOCIAL ISSUES 1. A close reading of the NFHS-5, the health of India ECONOMY 1. Indian agriculture needs a Verghese Kurien POLITY AND GOVERNANCE 1. Shore up the lifeline F. Prelims Facts 1. Show that celebrated 200 years of Bengal art to shut down G. Tidbits H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Recently, the Tibetan Community has expressed concerns over Chinese Policy in Tibet.
- Tibet, which had been invaded by China in 1949, had to deal with the immediate loss of life that comes with armed invasion.
- Soon after, communist doctrine and programmes such as the Cultural Revolution resulted in the loss of universal liberties.
Concerns of Tibetan Community
- There are concerns of China driving more Tibetans to the border regions while also taking advantage of the chance to establish more mainland Chinese in Tibetan towns.
- Communities in the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR) are “losing their culture” since schoolchildren are forced to learn Mandarin Chinese rather than Tibetan, and finding work is difficult unless they have received Chinese education.
- The Chinese government is less tolerant of other cultures and languages, promoting the slogan “One nation, one party, one language, one culture.”
India and Tibet:
- Significance of Tibet for India:
- India’s land boundaries with China are virtually the same as those with Tibet. China’s views on India are affected in many ways by its Tibet policy.
- Aside from a shared border, portions of India and Tibet have cultural ties.
- The Tibetan aristocracy viewed the outside world through the prism of India, and thousands of Tibetans fled to India as refugees in 1959.
- Why are Tibetans leaving India?
- Tibetans are recognised as “foreigners” only by the Indian government, not as refugees. India has declined to ratify the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention, which identifies refugees and holds states responsible for their well-being.
- The neighbourhood has paid a high price for the government’s intransigence.
- They are not allowed to own property or seek government positions in this country.
- Tibetans were unable to obtain loans to start enterprises until 2014.
- Despite the fact that the law enables them to work in the private sector, several firms have refused them since they are not Indian nationals.
India sought to push China to give Tibet an autonomous status. There is also a need for a strategy to ensure livelihoods for Tibetans living in India especially in remote and Border States.
Over 50% of Bihar’s population is classified as multidimensionally poor, according to the government think tank NITI Aayog’s Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).
National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Report on Bihar:
- In Bihar, 50% of the population was classified as “multidimensionally poor.”
- Among all the States and Union Territories, Bihar has the highest percentage of people living in poverty.
- Bihar has the highest poverty rate at 51.91 percent, followed by Jharkhand (42.16 percent), Uttar Pradesh (37.79 percent), Madhya Pradesh (36.65 percent), and Meghalaya (32.67 percent).
- Kerala has the lowest rate of poverty (0.71 percent), followed by Puducherry (1.72 percent), Lakshadweep (1.82 percent), Goa (3.76 percent), and Sikkim (3.82 percent ).
- Tamil Nadu (4.89 percent), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (4.30 percent), Delhi (4.79 percent), Punjab (5.59 percent), Himachal Pradesh (7.62 percent), and Mizoram (9.8%) are among the states and union territories where fewer than 10% of the population is impoverished.
National Multidimensional Poverty Index
- A national Multidimensional Poverty Index is a poverty metric that is adapted to each country’s specific circumstances.
- Niti Aayog, an Indian think tank, produces the National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).
- The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) created rigorous methods for it.
What is multidimensional poverty?
- Multidimensional poverty refers to the multiple deprivations that poor people face on a daily basis, such as poor health, a lack of education, insufficient living standards, disempowerment, low employment quality, the fear of violence, and living in ecologically hazardous places, to name a few.
- In order to formulate policies aiming at alleviating poverty and hardship in a nation, a multidimensional measure of poverty might include a variety of indicators that represent the complexity of this phenomenon.
Recently, the Supreme Court made it clear that it will not do anything to bring on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.
What is Vaccine Hesitancy?
- Vaccine hesitation is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “a delay in accepting or refusing immunisation notwithstanding the availability of vaccination services.”
- Aspects of vaccination hesitancy:
- Despite the availability of vaccination services, there is a delay in accepting, or refusing immunizations.
- Is complicated and context-dependent, shifting according to time, place, and vaccination.
- Complacency, convenience, and confidence are all elements that impact this.
Vaccine Hesitancy Challenge For India
- Vaccine hesitancy has hampered a number of government programmes, including polio eradication, even before the Covid epidemic.
- For a number of causes, including a lack of health knowledge, it has been more frequent in rural regions.
- In India, misdirected scepticism and false information regarding vaccinations pose a significant threat to the pandemic’s abolition and achievement of herd immunity.
- Due to a lack of information, a bigger share of the populace remains concerned about them.
- High vaccine hesitancy is fueled by a lack of trust in the safety and efficacy of newly developed vaccines, fear of side effects, rumours about infertility and death after receiving the vaccine, as well as the inconvenience of registration/booking slots, low-risk perception from Covid-19, and the absence of incentives for rural and urban poor, among other factors.
Solutions to Overcome Vaccine Hesitancy in India:
- Need for Targeted Strategy: A targeted strategy focused on the needs and concerns of people, groups, and communities will be necessary to overcome Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy.
- Providing incentives and timely information:
- Local influencers, religious leaders, traditional healers, local NGOs, local physicians, panchayat heads, and others may play a role in increasing vaccination adoption.
- Vaccination sites might be set up in locations that people trust, such as temples and mosques, Election Commission offices, and so on.
- Raising Awareness through campaigns: There should be public campaigns like “I am pleased to be vaccinated” which can raise awareness and generate momentum for vaccines in low-uptake areas.
- Increasing Vaccination through Nationalism: Indelible ink, which is commonly used in elections, can be put to the fingertips of those who have been vaccinated. A programme like this may instil a sense of nationalism and inspire participation.
- Compensating for Vaccination:
- Small incentives (1 kg rice and pulses, 1 litre cooking oil, etc.) can be given to compensate people for the time and money they spend getting the vaccine.
- Given that a large portion of the rural population works as daily wagers and is concerned about missing a day’s pay as a result of vaccination, employees may be paid a one-day MGNREGA payment in exchange for getting the injection.
- Behavioural Change: The behaviour innovations such as announcing prize money (lucky draw) among those vaccinated in selected low-uptake centres can help to increase vaccination rates.
C. GS 3 Related
Omicron, a new coronavirus variant, was recently recognised as a “variant of concern” by the World Health Organization (WHO).
What is Omicron?
- The number of new cases in South Africa has increased fourfold, corresponding with the introduction of the B.1.1.529 variant.
- The B.1.1.529 variant discovered in South Africa has been categorised as a SARS-CoV-2 “variant of concern” by the World Health Organization (WHO).
- This variant is named Omicron.
What is Variant of Concern (VOC)?
- There is evidence of increased transmissibility, more severe sickness, and a considerable reduction in neutralisation by antibodies developed from previous infection or immunisation for this variety.
- Besides that, it might be the result of decreased treatment or vaccination efficiency, or diagnostic detection failures.
Possible Attributes Of A Variant Of Concern
- There is evidence of a negative influence on diagnoses, treatments, or immunizations.
- Evidence of a significant reduction in sensitivity to one or more therapeutic classes
- Evidence of diminished vaccine-induced protection against severe illness.
- Evidence of increased transmissibility
- Evidence of a worsening of the disease
Know more about coronavirus variants in the linked article.
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Recently, key results from the second phase of the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) were released.
National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5):
- The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a multi-round, large-scale survey that is undertaken in a representative sample of Indian households.
- NFHS-5 surveys have been conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India.
- The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) for 2019-20, the fifth in the series, collects data on India’s population, health, and nutrition for each state and union territory.
The key results from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) Phase 2
- The Total Fertility Rates (TFR) declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level and all 14 States/UTs ranging from 1.4 in Chandigarh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh.
- Overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at the all-India level.
- Unmet needs of family planning have witnessed a significant decline from 13 per cent to 9 per cent at the all-India level and in most of the Phase-II States/UTs.
- Full immunization drive among children aged 12-23 months has recorded a substantial improvement from 62 per cent to 76 per cent at the all-India level.
- Institutional births have increased substantially from 79 per cent to 89 percent at the all-India level.
- More than half of the children and women (including pregnant women) are anaemic in all the phase-II States/UTs.
- Child nutrition indicators portrayed a marginal improvement at the all-India level.
Critical Evaluation of NFHS-5 Findings:
- Population has stabilised
- A comparison of NFHS-5 and NFHS-4 shows improvements in a variety of areas, including educational attainment, institutional births, immunizations, infant mortality, and much more.
- The most encouraging finding from NHFS-5 is that the total fertility rate (TFR) has been steadily declining over time, and is presently barely below the replacement rate of 2.1.
- This is true in all of India’s states. This indicates that the entire population has reached a point of stability.
- Data on sex ratio
- For the first time, there are 1,020 adult women for every 1,000 males.
- The natural Sex Ratio At Birth (SRB) is 105 males to 100 girls, with a 50-50 adult sex ratio commonly stabilising.
- Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Maharashtra are among the states having low SRBs.
- A portion of this imbalance would persist over into adulthood if there were widespread sex-selective abortions.
- However, several causes other than sex-selective abortions influence the adult sex ratio.
- The adult sex ratio in household surveys may also be influenced by problems, such as undercounting migrant males.
- The incidence of anaemia in children under the age of five (from 58.6 to 67 percent), women (53.1 to 57 percent), and men (22.7 to 25 percent) has increased in all Indian states.
- All Indian states are in the “severe” category, ranging from 39.4 percent in Kerala to 79.7 percent in Gujarat.
- Stunting (low height-for-age), wasting (low weight-for-height), and underweight (low weight-for-age) are the three signs of malnutrition that have improved generally.
- These factors all point to chronic or recurring malnutrition, which is often linked to poverty, poor maternal health and nutrition, frequent sickness, and/or unsuitable early feeding and care.
- Children are unable to realize their full physical and cognitive potential as a result of these factors.
- In addition to anthropometric parameters, micronutrient deficiencies, or a lack of vitamins and minerals required for biological processes such as the production of enzymes, hormones, and other substances required for growth and development, are also assessed.
Concerns With NFHS-5 Findings:
- Women’s anaemia is still a major cause of worry. In every state, women suffer from anaemia at a substantially greater rate than males.
- As seen by the poor uptake of condoms and male sterilisation across states, male participation in family planning remains limited and discouraging.
- Despite the measures taken, the growth of child weddings in a number of states is concerning.
- While most states and UTs have seen a decrease in spousal violence, it has increased in five states: Sikkim, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, and Karnataka.
Issues With NFHS-5 Survey:
- Based on comparisons between NHFS-4 and NHFS-5 to the improvements between the two prior rounds, some assessments have claimed that the rate of development has decreased.
- Some have claimed that COVID-19 is to blame for the bad health consequences.
- The data for the second phase of NFHS-5 were obtained during the COVID-19 pandemic’s exceedingly unique conditions.
- The survey focuses on indicators of women’s empowerment, autonomy, and mobility.
- It throws light on women’s reproductive health, revealing, for example, that the number of caesarian deliveries has risen considerably.
- C-section deliveries account for 47.5 percent of newborns in private health institutions (14.3 percent in public health facilities).
- These findings are exceedingly unusual and bring into question the unethical actions of private health practitioners that put financial gain before women’s health.
The evidence is overwhelming that health should be a priority for all political parties and all levels of government, national and state. The survey reveals significant disparities in health outcomes. An action plan to enhance India’s health must be comprehensive, resolute in its commitment, and well-funded.
This editorial highlights the contribution of Verghese Kurien and the significance of the Amul Cooperative model.
- Who was Verghese Kurien & what were his contributions?
- Dr Verghese Kurien was a chairman of Amul, an Indian cooperative dairy company.
- He is also called ‘the father of the White Revolution’ in the country.
- Verghese Kurien is known for transforming India’s dairy’s sector; his contribution made the country the largest milk producer in the world.
- “India’s place in the sun will come from the partnership between the wisdom of its rural people and the skill of its professionals”, captures the essence of his life and mission.
- Influence of Gandhian Thoughts:
- Kurien’s enthusiasm for the cooperative model was influenced by Gandhian ideas on poverty alleviation and social development.
- He thought that co-operatives were the most physical incarnation of Mahatma Gandhi’s powerful insight that “what the world needs is not mass production, but production by the masses.”
- He also questioned the business sector’s objectives in terms of social responsibility.
- He argued that profit drove much of the corporate sector, rather than public benefit.
Agriculture and Amul
- Issues in Agricultural Sector:
- In India, the cooperative movement is in a state of change. It has suffered as a result of a lack of competent management, inadequate funding, and low technological uptake.
- Suicides among farmers are not uncommon, and they weigh hard on the nation’s conscience.
- Meanwhile, the epidemic has widened the gap between urban and rural areas.
- In rural India, incomes are decreasing, and the country appears to be on the verge of a major human disaster.
- Significance of Amul in Agriculture:
- The success of Amul has sparked similar movements in other agricultural commodities in India.
- The private sector excels in areas such as marketing and management, branding, and technology, and sets benchmarks for firms all around the world to follow and adapt.
- Simultaneously, Amul was progressively establishing itself as a laboratory, creating important inventions and inventing its own technologies, which have bolstered its competitiveness against global firms.
- Case Study: Amul Cooperative Model
- Amul has steadily expanded its product line and added new ones, building on the strong foundation created by its visionary leader.
- Amul is still one of India’s most well-known food brands, and other dairy cooperatives such as Nandini in Karnataka, Aavin in Tamil Nadu, and Verka in Punjab look up to it for inspiration.
India’s digital revolution has bypassed the agriculture sector. India should focus on smart villages and development models such as Amul.
Recent reports have highlighted the issue of funds for the MGNREGS scheme.
Fund Crunch and MGNREGS
- The MGNREGS scheme is experiencing a shortage of funds as a result of increased demand and low authorised investment in the Union Budget for the current fiscal year.
- The strong demand reflects the pandemic’s widespread effects in rural regions, and a continued shortage of money will hinder any future demand for labour in these areas, in addition to delaying compensation for those who have already done work.
MGNREGS During Covid-19
- The effects of the pandemic lockdowns have continued to decrease job numbers and rural wage rates, which is why the MGNREGS has proven to be a popular source of employment and salaries.
- In fact, even during the pandemic’s economic crisis, the agricultural sector aided the poor by giving them guaranteed employment under the plan.
- According to activists following the scheme’s implementation, payment delays and a shortage of finances have resulted in a 20% unmet demand in Bihar, Telangana, and Gujarat.
For detailed information on the above topics refer to the following article:
F. Prelims Facts
Recently, the announcement was made to shut down the popular museum-exhibition Ghare Baire in Kolkata.
- Ghare Baire is a notable Kolkata museum exhibition that presents two centuries of Bengali art.
- The museum-exhibition opened on January 11, 2020, on BBD Bagh, popularly known as Dalhousie Square, in the refurbished Currency Building, which was established in 1833 and nearly demolished in 1996.
- The name Ghare Baire comes from the title of Rabindranath Tagore’s famous work, which prompted Satyajit Ray to produce a film with the same name.
- The art museum Ghare Baire focuses on Bengali art from the 18th to the 20th century.
Nothing here for today!!!
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Which of the following are the works of Rabindranath Tagore?
- Satya Ke Prayog
- Ghare Baire
- Sonar Tori
- 1 and 4 only
- 2, 3 and 4 only
- 1, 2 and 3 only
- 1, 2, 3 and 4
- Rabindranath Tagore was not only the first Asian to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature, but also the first non-European to do so.
- Tagore was the author of two national anthems. For India, “Jana Gana Mana” and for Bangladesh, “Amar Sonar Bangla.”
- He played an important part in modernising Bengali poetry and prose. Gitanjali, Ghare-Baire, Gora, Manasi, Balaka, and Sonar Tori are among his major works. He is also known for his song ‘Ekla Chalo Re.’
- Hence Option B is correct.
Q2. Consider the following statements:
- Constitution Day is celebrated in our country on 26th January every year to commemorate the enactment of the Constitution of India.
- The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 2015 notified the decision of Government of India to celebrate the Constitution Day every year to promote Constitution values among citizens.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Every year on November 26th (Not on 26th January), Constitution Day, also known as ‘Samvidhan Divas,’ is commemorated in our nation to honour the promulgation of the Indian Constitution. The Constituent Assembly of India enacted the Indian Constitution on November 26, 1949, and it went into force on January 26, 1950. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
- On November 19, 2015, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment announced that the Government of India has decided to commemorate the 26th of November each year as ‘Constitution Day’ in order to promote constitutional principles among citizens. Hence Statement 2 is correct.
Q3. With reference to the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to grant Special Leave, which of the following statements is/are incorrect?
- It can be granted against any court or tribunal in the country.
- It is a discretionary power of the Supreme Court and cannot be claimed as a matter of right.
- It is applicable to constitutional, civil and criminal matters.
- 1 only
- 1 and 2 only
- 3 only
- 2 and 3 only
- The Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal from any judgement rendered by any court or body in the country at its discretion (except military tribunal and court martial). Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
- As a result of such a special leave appeal, the Supreme Court can either approve or reject the appellant’s application, because the Supreme Court has the discretionary ability to accept or reject such an application. Hence Statement 2 is correct.
- In matters of right for parties in civil, criminal, and constitutional proceedings, the supreme court gives special permission to special appeal. Hence Statement 3 is correct.
Q4. Consider the following pairs:
- Kuril Japan- Russia
- Senkaku China- Japan
- Dokdo Japan- South Korea
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- The sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands is the subject of a territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation.
- The Senkaku Islands dispute is a territorial dispute between Japan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) over uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan.
- South Korea and Japan have a territorial dispute over the Liancourt Rocks. Both nations claim ownership over the Liancourt Rocks, a collection of tiny rocks in the Sea of Japan. It is known as “Dokdo” in Korean language.
- Hence All the Statements are Correct.
Q 5: Who among the following is associated with ‘Songs from Prison’, a translation of ancient Indian religious lyrics in English?
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Jawaharlal Nehru
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- Sarojini Naidu
- In 1934, Mahatma Gandhi was affiliated with “Songs from Prison,” an English translation of traditional Indian devotional hymns.
- Hence Option C is Correct.
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- Critically examine India’s Tibet policy. In the light of long-standing Chinese assertion in the region, do you think India should be more aggressive and better utilize the leverage it has in Tibet? Comment.[GS-2, India’s foreign policy]
- Identify the various bottlenecks in India’s health delivery mechanism. Also suggest appropriate solutions to the problem. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-2, Social Justice]
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 27 Nov 2021:- Download PDF Here