Cultural Developments

Salvation (moksha) became main subject of the philosophy. It meant deliverence from cycle of birth and death. This was first recommended by Buddha later by brahmanical philosophers. In india we have six orthodox school vizsamkhya, nyaya, yoga,vaisheshika,mimamsa, vedanta  

Samkhya school believed that nature or prakriti responsible for formation of this world. And they believed that real knowledge is essential for salvation.and can be obtained through perception(pratyaksha), inference(anumaan), hearing(shabd)    

Yoga school believed that one can get salvation through meditation(pranayama) and physical application through control over pleasure  

Nyaya school developed as a system of logic, according to them salvation can be obtained through the acquisition of knowledge  

Vaisheshika gave importance to discussion on material elements(dravya). Draws line between particularities and their aggregate. Earth, water, fire,air and ether when combined give rise to new objectsthis school propounded atom theory marked beginning of physics.  

Mimamsa means the art of reasoning and interpretations. It provides justification for various rituals(vedic), and attainment of salvation through their performance  

Vedanta  brahmasutra of badrayanabecamethe basic text of this school. Later two commentaries by Shankara and Ramanuja on this became very famous shankara believes knowledge to be chief for salvation. Ramanuja stressed on devotion. This school is based on upanishads and according to them brahma is reality and everything is unreal (maya). Karma theory is also linked to it.    


1. Consider following statements about philosophical thought in India regarding sankhya

1.sankhyadoesnot accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul

2.sankhya holds that it is the self knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior elements

a)  1 only

b)  2 only

c)  both

d)  none

Answer: B