The D-10 can serve to drive a common approach to counter the wide range of autocratic threats

posed by Russia and China. The D-10 is not intended as a security alliance or an alternative to t the United Nations (UN) Security Council, nor is it directed at confronting or containing China or any other nation. Rather, it is aimed at rallying the world’s most powerful democracies around a common cause – advancing a rules-based democratic order based on shared values and common interests.

This article will discuss the D10 countries and their formation in the context of the IAS Exam.

The candidates can go through the relevant topics useful for their upcoming exams from the links provided below:

G20 – UPSC International Relations

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Coronavirus & Impact on Economy

G77 – Largest Intergovernmental Organization

BREXIT – Causes, Global Impact and Impact on India

SAARC is South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation


  • Today, the Chinese telecom company, Huawei, enjoys the monopoly as the 5G supplier. The biggest and most powerful nations, such as the USA and the UK, along with the rest of the world, are dependent on China for modern technologies.
  • Presently, Nokia and Ericsson are the only two companies that can offer 5G infrastructure. However, their service is expensive and slower in comparison to Huawei. Since the coronavirus outbreak, the world has been accusing China of unleashing the deadly virus. Also, after the US sanction against Huawei and news about China spying on other countries.
  • Developed nations are trying to create alternative suppliers of 5G infrastructure and other technologies to avoid dependence on China for vital technologies.
  • With such intention, in 2020, Britain’s Prime Minister Boris Johnson invited three nations along with G7 countries to form a new alliance of 10 democracies called d10 countries.

Formation of the D10 group

It was the year 2008, when the Department of State policy planning, USA, had suggested the idea of D10 countries. Later in 2014, the Atlantic Council launched an initiative to maintain a rules-based democratic order under the leadership of ten leading democracies.

D-10 full form

D10 stands for Democracy 10, which means a coalition of ten democratic nations to build alternative options for the supply of 5G infrastructure to avoid reliance on China and break its monopoly.

D10 countries name

The D10 consists of G7 countries and three other nations. The D10 countries’ names are –

  1. The UK,
  2. The US,
  3. Italy,
  4. Germany,
  5. France,
  6. Japan, and
  7. Canada (these are the G7 countries), plus
  8. India,
  9. South Korea, and
  10. Australia.

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Leaders’ names of the D10 Group UPSC

The name of the ten leaders of the D10 group are as follows:

Sl No.

Name of the Leader



Joe Biden



Boris Johnson

The UK


Mario Draghi



Olaf Scholz



Emmanuel Macron



Fumio Kishida



Justin Trudeau



Narendra Modi



Moon Jae-in

South Korea


Scott Morrisonn


Why is Britain worried?

Britain considers Huawei a high-risk supplier. Its involvement in the UK’s 5G upgrade comes with a 35% market cap, including a ban on its participation in the sensitive core of the network. Moreover, after the US imposed sanctions on Huawei, Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre became alert and assessed the impact of the Chinese telecom giant on the UK’s networks.

Importance of the D10 group countries

As civil service aspirants, you will come across questions on the significance of D10 group counties, which are as follows:

  1. The D10 countries aim to invest in existing telecommunication companies within the 10 member nations.
  2. Build alternative suppliers of 5G infrastructure and other modern and vital technologies.
  3. Devise plans and strategies to avoid reliance on China for updated technologies such as 5G.
  4. To cease China’s powers from picking off the democratic nations with lobbying and strategic fund investment plans.
  5. The D10 group would curb China’s malicious plans of spreading rumours and false information through online campaigns against the US and its allies about their involvement in COVID-related data. Such a malicious strategy is also known as wolf warrior diplomacy.
  6. D10 attracts both foreign-policy restraints and competitors. Hence, if these two strategic liabilities and strong public concerns are minimised, it will decrease the future possibilities of tensions with China.

Disadvantages of D10

  1. According to the experts, the D10 nations will have to work with China to exclude it from the mainstream, which is complex and requires huge investment and supply.
  2. Due to the enormous population globally, China offers the most potent market opportunity. Hence, it cannot be expelled entirely from the system,
  3. Though India is seen as an essential new addition to the alliance, it will have to be extra careful and plan its foreign policies. Since the Ladakh region of India is under constant threat and insurgencies by China.

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Frequently Asked Questions on D10 Countries


Who proposed the D10 group?

In the year 2020, Britain’s Prime Minister Boris Johnson proposed the D10 Group, which includes the 10 largest democracies of the world.


Which countries are the observers of the D10 group?

Indonesia, Spain, and Poland are observer nations of the D10 group.


When was the D10 group planned?

The planning of the D10 group goes back to 2008. It was an initiative planned by the US Department of State Policy and Planning.

Other related links:

IAS Salary

Comprehensive News Analysis

Booklist for IAS International Relations

Indian Polity Notes for UPSC

India’s Bilateral Relations

International Relations Questions in UPSC Mains

International Organizations and Their Headquarters

UPSC Mains General Studies-II Strategy, Syllabus & Structure

Documents Required for UPSC Exam

Daily Press Information Bureau (PIB) Analysis


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