India-Germany Relations

India-German relations refers to the series of bilateral relations between the republic of India and Germany.

Bilateral  relations have been traditionally strong due to commercial, cultural and technological cooperation.marked by a high degree of trust and mutual respect.

This article will give details about the India-Germany Relations within the context of the UPSC Exams.

India-Germany Relations – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

6th India-Germany Inter-Governmental Consultations 2022

During the 6th IGC, India and Germany inked 9 agreements that would give their bilateral ties a new direction. The following is a list of these accords, ranging from the Green Alliance to International Trade:

  1. The Green and Sustainable Development Partnership is probably the most significant of all Joint Declaration of Intent (JDIs). This statement of purpose gives the whole development cooperation objective involving India and Germany a long-term strategic point of view. In reality, Germany has committed to make an upfront pledge of 10 billion euros in fresh and extra development aid until 2030 as part of the deal.
  2. Triangular Development Cooperation will be implemented, in which India and Germany would collaborate on 3rd country programs.
  3. As per the Migration and Mobility Partnership Agreement, the two nations will build a direct and encrypted connection between MEA and the German Foreign Office.
  4. A task force would be formed as part of an Indo-German Development Cooperation Regarding Renewable Energy Partnership to strive toward the establishment of a green hydrogen centre in India using German assistance.
  5. Both countries have inked a JDI to continue their collaboration in the area of specialized training for Indian corporate executives and junior executives. The Indian and German stakeholders will collaborate on defence production, co-designing, co-development, and conversations on global trends as component of this defence and strategic collaboration.
  6. Both countries have signed a Joint Declaration on the beginning of the Comprehensive Migration and Mobility Partnership Agreement.
  7. A JDI on Agroecology was also inked between the two countries.
  8. More on climate change action, India and Germany have consented to a Joint Declaration on Forest Landscape Restoration.
  9. The two countries have agreed to create an Indo-German Green Hydrogen Task Force.

History of India-Germany Relations

Although under the rule of the British Empire at the time, the first semblance of the Indo-Germanic relations was when independence activists sought Imperial Germany’s help in liberating India during World War I. In addition, Indian troops in the British Army also fought against Germany at the time

During World War II, Subash Chandra Bose sougt Nazi Germany’s assistance by seeking military assitance  The Indische Legion was formed to serve as a liberation force for British-ruled India and was principally made up of British Indian prisoners of war and expatriates in Europe.

The newly formed Republic of India was one of the first nations to end the State of War with Germany after World War II and did not claim war reparations from Germany although 24,000 soldiers serving in the British Indian Army died in the campaign to fight Nazi Germany.

India maintained diplomatic relations with both West Germany and East Germany and supported their reunification in 1990.

West Germany condemned India for liberating Goa from Portuguese rule in 1961 and supported Portugal’s dictatorial regime under Salazar against India while its Eastern counterpart was more sympathetic to India’s action.

This was largely due to Cold War politics at the time when East Germany was under the influence of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact while Western Germany was aligned with NATO and the USA.

Following the reunification of Germany after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, relations between Indian have been largely cordial and warm in the ensuing years marked by high level visits and strategic ties.

Read about India’s Bilateral Relations with Other Countries in the linked article.

Strategic Ties

The India-Germany strategic relationship is limited by the insignificance of German geopolitical influence in Asian affairs. Contrary to France and the UK, Germany has no strategic footprint in Asia.

  • In India, approximately 1700 German enterprises operate, employing over 400,000 people directly and indirectly.
  • Germany is India’s major European trading partner and one of the top 10 worldwide trading countries.
  • In the year of 2019, the two nations’ bilateral trade was worth more than EUR 21.3 billion.
  • Germany is India’s seventh biggest foreign direct investor, with an overall foreign direct investment (FDI) of around USD 12 billion between 2000 and June 2020.
  • In turn, Indian investments in Germany have expanded significantly in recent years. Over EUR 6.5 billion has been invested in Germany by Indian companies, mostly in the IT, automotive, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. In Germany now, there are far over 200 Indian enterprises.
  • The rising magnitude of business and job visas granted by the German Embassy and Consulates in India reflects the ever strengthening and close bilateral economic relations: in 2019, 7,575 long-term employment visas as well as over 78,000 short-term business related visas were granted.

Note: The above facts and figures are provided by the German Missions in India.

India and Germany both seek to become permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and have joined with Japan and Brazil to coordinate their efforts via the G4 collective.

Cultural relations Between India and Germany

India and Germany have long academic and cultural relations. Max Mueller was the first scholar of Indeo-European languages to translate and publish the Upanishads and the Rigveda. German interest in the Indian philosophy and languages led to the setting up of the first Chair of Indology at the University of Bonn in 1818.

The Indian government has fundend 31 short term rotating hairs of Indian studies in German Universities so far. Indian  films  and  artists  regularly  feature  at  the  Berlin  International  Film  Festival and at Indian Film festivals held in other parts of Germany.

Defence and Trade Cooperation.

India and Germany maintain an ongoing dialogue in the areas of commercial maritime security and cooperation in the field of anti-terrorism. The Indian Navy and the German Navy conducted joint-exercises in 2008 for the first time, following an anti-piracy co-operation agreement between the two nations signed in 2006.

Germany’s military is principally structured to defend Eastern Europe and to support NATO operations in the Western European theatre of operations. Unlike the UK and France, Germany not only does not have any sovereign territories in the Indo-Pacific region, but is also incapable of power projection.

Germany is India’s largest trading partner in Europe. Germany is the 7th largest foreign direct investor (FDI) in India. Germany’s FDI totalled about 12 billion USD during the period 2000-2020. Indian investments in Germany have seen sharp increases in the last few years.

Frequently Asked Questions about India-Germany Relations

What is the Trade Relation between India and Germany?

Germany is India’s most important trading partner in the EU and one of the top 10 worldwide trading nations. Since India embarked on a course of reform and opened up its economy in 1991, the volume of trade between the two countries has increased rapidly.

What are the major Indian exports to Germany?

Major Indian exports to Germany include food and beverages, machinery, pharmaceuticals, textiles, metal and metal products, electro technology, leather and leather Goods, gems and jewellery, rubber products, auto components, and chemicals.

Aspirants can find complete information about upcoming Government Exams through the linked article. More exam-related preparation materials will be found through the links given below

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