Manas National Park, Assam

India’s flora and fauna are of great importance to the country. It is because of this that questions on the national parks are frequently asked in the UPSC Exam. One such important park is the Manas National Park located in the North East of India. Take a look at some important statistics and details regarding this National Park.

For the purpose of conservation of wildlife and biodiversity, national parks, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, etc. have been maintained in the country. UPSC aspirants can get the list of National Parks in India at the linked article.

The facts related to the various national parks in the country is important from the perspective of both prelims and mains UPSC Syllabus. Questions based on the same can be expected under the Geography or the Environment and Ecology part.

Origin of the Name Manas National Park

The name Manas comes from the River Manas that flows through the National Park and the Hindu deity ‘Manasa’, a snake goddess.

Where is Manas National Park Located?

Manas National Park is located in two districts of Assam, Bongaigaon and Barpeta.

Situated at the foothills of the Himalayas, this park is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan.

River Manas, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra, divides this National Park into two halves and forms a border with Bhutan.

History of Manas National Park for UPSC

  • Previously, the Raja of Gauripur and the royal family of Cooch Behar used this region as a hunting ground.
  • In 1905, Manas was proposed to become a Reserve Forest or RF.
  • In 1907, it was declared a Reserve Forest.
  • Further, it was declared a Game Sanctuary in 1928.
  • In 1950, it was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • In 1989, UNESCO deemed Manas a Biosphere Reserve under the Man and Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
  • 1990 saw Manas confirmed to be a National Park.
  • In 2003, Manas was declared the Chirang-Ripu Elephant Reserve under Project Elephant.

Geographical Features of Manas National Park

  • It is located at the foothills of the Himalayas, where fine alluvial soil supports one of the richest biodiversity spots of the world.
  • It has an average altitude of 61-110 metres.
  • This park’s average temperature ranges from 15°C to 30°C.
  • Average rainfall in this area is over 300 cm and occurs mostly from May to September.
  • The main vegetation types include alluvial grasslands (covers 50% of this region), dry deciduous, moist deciduous, and semi-evergreen forests.

All IAS aspirants must refer to the links given below and get answers to the common questions based on National Parks in India:

More About Manas National Park

Manas National Park is more than a National Park. It is also the following:

  • UNESCO World Heritage Site (2837 sq. km)
  • Tiger Reserve
  • Elephant Reserve
  • Biosphere Reserve
  • National Park
  • Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Important Bird Area

Animals at Manas National Park

The Manas National Park is home to many rare and endangered animals. Some of the animals one can spot at the park are:

  • Asian Elephant
  • Assam Roofed Top Turtle
  • Assamese macaques
  • Barasingha
  • Barking deer
  • Bengal Florican
  • Black Panther
  • Capped Langur
  • Chinese pangolin
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Dholes
  • Falcons
  • Fishing Eagles
  • Gaur
  • Golden cats
  • Hispid hares
  • Hog Deer
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Indian Hornbill
  • Leopard
  • One-horned rhinoceros
  • Pygmy hog
  • Rare golden langur
  • Red panda
  • Sambar deer
  • Sloth bear
  • Smooth-coated otters
  • Swamp deer
  • Tigers
  • Wild water buffalo

Manas is also a haven for migratory birds. The National Park contains many species of animals and birds. Some statistics are:

  • 450 species of birds
  • 55 species of mammals
  • 50 species of reptiles
  • 3 species of amphibians

21 of these mammals are in India’s Schedule 1 of mammals and 31 are threatened species.

IAS aspirants must also refer to the following links:

Trees and Plants at Manas National Park

Manas National Park is also home to many trees. Some statistics concerning these are:

  • 543 plant species that include:
    • 374 dicots
    • 139 monocots
    • 30 pteridophytes and gymnosperms
  • 89 tree species
  • 49 shrubs
  • 37 undershrubs
  • 172 herbs
  • 36 climbers
  • 15 species of orchids
  • 18 species of ferns
  • 43 species of grass

To sum up, Manas National Park is among the most well-known and beautiful national parks in India. Apart from this information, IAS Exam aspirants can also check out some of the frequently asked questions below.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the name of the village located inside the Manas National Park?

Pagrang is a village located within the boundaries of the Manas National Park.

Which are the two legislative frameworks that govern the Manas National Park?

The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and the Indian Forest Act, 1927/Assam Forest Regulation 1891 are the two legislations that govern the Manas National Park.

Who manages Manas National Park?

The Assam Forest Department and the Bodoland Territorial Council manage the Manas National Park.

How many varieties of wild rice are there in the Manas National Park?

There are 400 varieties of wild rice in the Manas National Park.

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