Concept: Kaziranga National Park
CNA mentions: 1(June 20)
National parks and wildlife sanctuaries are an important part of the UPSC syllabus for environment and ecology. Kaziranga National Park is one of the more famous parks of India and is known for its one-horned rhinoceros. Read more about this national park for the IAS exam.
Kaziranga National Park is one of India’s oldest reserve areas. Mary Curzon took the initiative to declare the area ‘protected’ with her husband Lord Curzon after she failed to spot a single rhinoceros. In 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was established. In 1950, the area was renamed Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary. In 1974, the Indian government gave the park official status. By this time, the area of the park had increased to about 430 sq.km from the original 232 sq.km.
In 1985, the national park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kaziranga is home to 2/3rd of the world’s population of rhinoceroses. In 2006, the park was declared a Tiger Reserve. It has one of the highest density of tigers in the world. The park also has elephants, swamp deer, wild water buffalo, etc. It also has a wide range of flora. It also has 15 threatened species of fauna. It is also a breeding ground for many species of big cats like leopards and Bengal tigers. It also has many species of birds and is designated as an ‘Important Bird Area’ by Birdlife International.
Kaziranga is located in Golaghat and Nagaon, in Karbi Anglong districts of Assam in northeast India. The park is administered by the forest department of the Assam State Government.