09 Jun 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 09 June 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMY
1. Requirement for limits on UPI transactions
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Impact of Chronic Stress on Human body
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INFRASTRUCTURE
1. Railways safety
ECONOMY
1. Production linked subsidy
F. Prelims Facts
1. Atlantic Declaration
G. Tidbits
1. Agni Prime
2. National Exit Test
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Impact of Chronic Stress on Human body

Syllabus: Awareness in Different Fields

Mains: Various issues with mental health and its impact on the physical body

Context: This article discusses the impact of psychological stress on the intestine.

Introduction

  • A recent study published in the Cell journal shed light on the connection between mental health and gastroenterology, specifically in relation to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
  • The study emphasised the profound impact of mental health on inflammatory responses in the body, particularly during disease flares in IBD patients.
  • With further research, the study’s author envisions the development of drugs that can effectively block the inflammatory cascades triggered by psychological stress.

Key Details

  • The study brings attention to the influence of stress on the body, particularly the gastrointestinal (GI) system. It highlights the role of stress in stimulating the adrenal gland to produce glucocorticoids, a stress hormone. 
  • Short-term stress, such as before an exam, can lead to reduced appetite and increased bowel movements.
  • However, chronic or long-term stress, like toxic work environments, difficult relationships, or childhood pressure to perform, can result in inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, such as IBD.
    • In cases of chronic stress, the body continuously releases glucocorticoids. 
  • Chronic stress not only triggers the production of glucocorticoids but also initiates inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. These responses involve both physical damage to the intestine and functional changes in gut motility due to inflammatory mediators.
  • The study emphasises the interconnectedness of the body’s response to stress and the functioning of the gut-brain axis. Stress triggers a cascade of physiological changes involving various systems and hormones, ultimately affecting the GI system and contributing to conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and IBD.
  • Understanding these complex mechanisms is crucial for comprehending the effects of chronic stress on the gastrointestinal system. 

IBD v/s IBS:

  • In contrast to IBS, which is associated with stress and commonly affects women, IBD is a distinct condition.
  • Unlike IBD, IBS does not involve an inflammatory response as its cause or consequence.
    • Physical changes such as ulcers and structural alterations are observable in the colon during endoscopy for individuals with IBD, whereas such changes are not present in IBS characterised by symptoms like bloating, constipation, and diarrhoea. 
    • IBD is immunologically mediated and can have hereditary factors, while IBS is part of a group of disorders known as gut-brain interaction disorders (DGBI).
  • IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, carries the risk of colorectal cancer, highlighting the severity and potential complications of this condition. 
  • On the other hand, IBS is part of a broader spectrum of disorders involving the interaction between the gut and the brain.
  • The study’s findings emphasise the importance of addressing biases and misconceptions surrounding IBS within the medical community, as they can impact patient care and treatment outcomes. 

Treatment to manage stress

  • The use of specific GI-directed behavioural therapies that employ cognitive-behavioural approaches can address anxiety related to GI symptoms. 
  • Aerobic exercise and yoga are beneficial in managing stress. Aerobic exercises release endorphins, which enhance mood and improve pain tolerance. 
  • Regular yoga practice increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are crucial for learning and memory. Additionally, yoga induces a relaxation response.

Nut Graf:  A recent study highlights the link between mental health and gastroenterology, particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Chronic stress triggers inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract, but further research may lead to drugs that block these cascades. Behavioural therapies and activities like aerobic exercise and yoga can help manage stress.

G. Tidbits

1. Agni Prime

  • New generation ballistic Missile ‘Agni Prime’ was successfully flight-tested by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Island off the coast of Odisha on June 07, 2023. 
  • Range Instrumentation like Radar, Telemetry and Electro-Optical Tracking Systems were deployed at different locations, including two down-range ships, at the terminal point to capture flight data covering the entire trajectory of the vehicle.
  • Agni-P or Agni-Prime is a medium-range ballistic missile being developed as a successor for Agni-I and Agni-II missiles in the operational service of Strategic Forces Command with significant upgrades in the form of composite motor casing, manoeuvrable reentry vehicle (MaRV) along with improved propellants, navigation and guidance systems.
  • Agni-P is a two-stage, surface-to-surface, road mobile and solid-fueled MRBM which is transported by a truck and launched via a canister.
  • It is a ballistic missile with dual redundant navigation and guidance system. It is the sixth missile in the Agni (missile) series.

2. National Exit Test

  • The Union Health Ministry has officially announced that the National Exit Test (NExT) will be conducted starting in 2024.
  • The NExT will replace the final-year MBBS examination and NEET-PG, serving as the registration and admission test for doctors and medical postgraduate courses.
  • The combined NExT exam will also serve as the mandatory licentiate examination for undergraduate medical students to practise modern medicine in India.
  • Students who received their medical degrees from  National Medical Commission (NMC)-approved medical institutions and overseas students also will have to qualify in the National Exit Test.
  • The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi, is expected to be the conducting body for the NExT, focusing on evaluating students’ clinical and practical knowledge.
  • Currently, the National Board of Examinations in Medical Sciences (NBEMS) is responsible for holding exams like NEET PG (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test Postgraduate), & Foreign Medical Graduate Examination (FMGE).

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. How many of the following statements are true? (Level-Easy)
  1. The Pumped Storage projects are often developed in conjunction with hydel power projects.
  2. It is a form of renewable energy.
  3. They use surplus energy during low-demand times in order to fulfil the demand during peak hours.

Options:

  1. Only 1 statement
  2. Only 2 statements
  3. All 3 statements
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • Pumped storage hydropower (PSH) is a type of hydroelectric energy storage. It is a configuration of two water reservoirs at different elevations that can generate power as water moves down from one to the other (discharge), passing through a turbine. The system also requires power as it pumps water back into the upper reservoir (recharge).
  • Pumped-storage hydroelectricity allows energy from intermittent sources (such as solar, wind) and other renewables, or excess electricity from continuous base-load sources (such as coal or nuclear) to be saved for periods of higher demand.
Q2. How many of the following pairs are correctly matched? (Level-Medium)
  1. Repo Rate: the rate at which commercial banks give out loans
  2. Reverse Repo Rate: the rate at which commercial banks take loans from the RBI
  3. Statutory Liquidity Ratio: Minimum % of deposits to be maintained by commercial banks as liquid assets

Options:

  1. Only 1 pair
  2. Only 2 pairs
  3. All 3 pairs
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, Repo stands for “Re Purchase Option”. Repo Rate is the rate at which the Reserve Bank of India lends to other banks by buying the securities with an agreement that the bank will buy back on a certain date. 
  • Statement 02 is incorrect, The reverse repo rate is the rate of interest that is provided by the Reserve Bank of India while borrowing money from commercial banks.
  • Statement 03 is correct, Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) is the minimum percentage of deposits that a commercial bank must keep in liquid cash, gold, or other securities. 
Q3. How many of the following pairs of the monument and the ruler by whom it was 
constructed are correctly matched? (Level-Medium)
  1. Siri Fort: Allauddin Khilji
  2. Jantar Mantar: Maharaja Jai Singh II
  3. Konark Sun Temple: Narasimhadeva I
  4. Qutub Minar: Iltutmish

Options:

  1. Only 1 pair
  2. Only 2 pairs
  3. Only 3 pairs
  4. All 4 pairs
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Among the six rulers of the Khilji dynasty, Alauddin Khilji laid the foundation of his capital Siri in 1303 A.D. 
  • A Jantar Mantar is an assembly of stone-built astronomical instruments, designed to be used with the naked eye. There were five Jantar Mantars in India (Jaipur, Delhi, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi), all of them built at the command of Maharaja Jai Singh II.
  • Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century (year 1250) temple in  Odisha. The temple is attributed to King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga dynasty about 1250 CE.
  • Qutbu’d-Din Aibak laid the foundation of Qutub Minar in 1199 AD and raised the first storey, to which were added three more storeys by his successor and son-in-law, Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish (AD 1211-36). 
Q4. Which of the following statements are true? (Level-Easy)
  1. IMD is designated as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for 13 nations.
  2. The naming of the cyclones in the North Indian Ocean region started in 2004.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • Worldwide there are six regional specialised meteorological centres (RSMCs) and five regional Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) mandated for issuing advisories and naming of tropical cyclones.
  • India Meteorological Department is one of the six RSMCs to provide tropical cyclone and storm surge advisories to 13 member countries under the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)/United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia-Pacific (ESCAP) Panel.
  • The 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the first in which tropical cyclones were officially named in the basin. 
    • Cyclone Onil, which struck India and Pakistan, was named in late September.
Q5. What is the use of Biochar in farming?​ (Level-Difficult) (PYQ-CSE-2020)
  1. Biochar can be used as a part of the growing medium in vertical farming.
  2. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it promotes the growth of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms.​
  3. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it enables the medium to retain water for a longer time.​

Which of the above-given statements is/are correct?​

  1. 1 and 2 only​
  2. 2 only​
  3. 1 and 3 only​
  4. 1, 2 and 3 only​
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is correct, Biochar is created by subjecting biomass to high temperatures without the presence of oxygen. Utilising biochar in vertical farming has the potential to greatly enhance crop yields.
  • Statement 02 is correct, Biochar holds promise in enhancing the inherent nitrogen fixation capability of legumes within the soil. It provides a favourable environment for nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, thereby promoting their survival and activity. 
  • Statement 03 is correct, Because of its porous nature, biochar can improve soil’s water retention. Thereby plants will have more water available to them for a longer period of time.

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 09 June 2023:- Download PDF Here

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