# 3 Oct 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 3 Oct 2022:-

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
GOVERNANCE
1. Red Tapism in India
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Satellite broadband services in India
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Choose ‘safe surrender’ over infant abandonment
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. The U.K. is staring into an economic abyss
F. Prelims Facts
1. Jal Jeevan Mission
2. Nord Stream
G. Tidbits
1. Mission Mangalyaan
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


Nothing here for today!!!

1. The U.K. is staring into an economic abyss

Syllabus: Effect of policies of developed countries on India’s interest.

Mains: UK economy and its impact on the global economy.

Context: Unveiling of the mini budget in Britain

Recent Announcements:

• The mini-budget of Britain was announced by the British Chancellor of Exchequer.
• The recent measures favour high earners disproportionately, abolishing the top rate of income tax and reversing the proposed increase of corporation tax.
• There was a failure to explain funding in the support of winter fuel bills to households and small businesses.

Consequences of the Recent economic measures in the UK:

• The consequence of the speech of the British Chancellor of Exchequer:
• The pound plunged in the global financial market.
• The cost of borrowing soared.
• There is a tentative fear of financial crisis.
• It also indicated a lack of confidence in the long-term prospects of the economy of Britain. Unprecedented damage to the U.K. Treasury bond was also caused, which has the potential to weaken the global economy.
• International Monetary Fund also issued a warning against the mini-budget of the United Kingdom. This is despite the fact that IMF does not criticize G7 countries for their domestic economic provisions.
• IMF is officially the lender of last resort and is responsible for maintaining global economic stability.
• The IMF also has a duty to protect the global financial markets.
• IMF rebuked Britain highlighting that the tax cuts would increase inequality.
• The fund also cautioned against a fiscal policy that appeared to be at crossroads with the monetary policy. IMF also warned against the increased inflationary risk.
• The Bank of England also intervened warning against the material risk to the financial stability of the country. The bank took a slew of measures:
• It decreased its debt and pledged to buy back the long-term Treasury bonds/gilts in order to stabilize the bond market.
• In the matter of pension funds, a liquidity crisis also emerged due to the rising cost of borrowing. This inflationary pressure was further exacerbated by over-leveraged fund instruments that underwrote their future liabilities.
• However, the Bank has not resolved the problem completely instead has just stabilized pension funds to buy some additional time.
• Moreover, the pound has lost its value, and going ahead if the gilts become a bad investment option, then several countries across the world (including India) might reconsider their holdings.

For more information on International Monetary Fund, read here: International Monetary Fund (IMF) – History, Functions | UPSC Notes

Implications on household debts:

• The cost of domestic borrowing has risen sharply, affecting household as well as corporate debt.
• After the declaration of the mini-budget, there was the discontinuation of several mortgages. Furthermore, those having a variable rate or renewed fixed-rate loans, speculate extreme increases in their monthly payments.
• Interest rates are also expected to rise.

Nut Graf: The economy of Britain is facing a potential risk. The recent measures announced by the British government have further exacerbated the economic crisis, especially for small businesses and households. The instability of the British economy can further impact the economies of other countries.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Jal Jeevan Mission

Syllabus: GS02- Governance

Prelims: Important government schemes

Context: Recently, a survey was commissioned by the Union Ministry of Water Resources to assess the functioning of the Jal Jeevan Mission.

Key Findings:

Tap Water Connections:

• As per the survey, around 62% of rural households in India have fully functional tap water connections within their premises.It was 52% in June 2022.
• A fully functional tap water connection is defined as a household getting at least 55 litres per capita per day of potable water all through the year.
•  Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Goa, and Puducherry reported more than 80% of households with fully functional connections.
• Fewer than 50% of the households in Rajasthan, Kerala, Manipur, Tripura, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram and Sikkim had such connections.
• Close to three-fourths of households received water all seven days a week and 8% just once a week.

Image Source: The Hindu

Water Quality

• The water quality test in selected households revealed that 95% of households have water quality within acceptable limits of pH values.
• Over 90% of village-level institutions were getting potable water.
• 57% of the sampled households reported purifying water before drinking.
• Though 93% of the samples were reportedly free of bacteriological contamination, most of the anganwadi centres and schools had higher than the permissible range of residual chlorine and indicated inappropriate local dosing.

• The Jal Jeevan Mission is a flagship program of the Government of India, it was launched on August 15, 2019, by Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
• Mission is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.

Read more on Jal Jeevan Mission

2. Nord Stream

Syllabus: GS02-International Relations

Prelims: Baltic sea

Context: Four leaks were reported at different points in the Nord Stream pipelines, designed to carry gas from Russia to Europe via the Baltic sea.

Key Details:

• Four leaks have been reported in the Nord Stream pipelines since September 26 2022.
• Two of the leaks were in Swedish waters while the other two were reported from Danish waters.
• Both Danish and Swedish seismologists picked up undersea explosions near the locations of the first two leaks before they occurred.

What are the Nord Stream pipelines

• Nord Stream 1 is a 1,224 km underwater gas pipeline running from Vyborg in northwest Russia to Lubmin in northeastern Germany via the Baltic Sea.
• The majority owned by the Russian energy giant Gazprom, it is the primary network through which gas reaches Germany. Most of the gas goes directly to Germany, while the rest travels west and southwards through onshore links to other countries and into storage caverns.
• Nord Stream 1 has been operational since 2011, and is the largest single supply route for Russian gas to Europe.
• The construction of the \$11 billion-worth Nord Stream 2 was completed in 2021 but never began commercial operations.
• Even though both pipelines were not running commercially, they had millions of cubic metres of gas stored in them.

Image Source: The Indian Express

G. Tidbits

1. Mission Mangalyaan

• India’s Mars orbiter craft Mangalyaan has reportedly ‘retired’ after 8 years in the interplanetary mission as its fuel ran out and its battery drained beyond safe limit.
• The ₹450 crore Mars Orbiter Mission was launched onboard PSLV-C25 on November 5, 2013, and the MOM spacecraft was successfully inserted into the Martian orbit on September 24, 2014 in its first attempt.
• Mission helped study Martian landscapes including surface geology, morphology, atmospheric processes, surface temperature, and atmospheric escape process.
• It was designed to work for 06 years only.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following Pairs: (Level-Difficult)

Temple                                                           Hills

2. Varaha Lakshmi Narasimha Temple               Simhachalam Hills
3. Vaishno Devi Temple                                          Trikuta Hills

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• Pair 01 is correctly matched, Badrinath or Badrinarayana Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu that is situated in the town of Badrinath in Uttarakhand, India.
• Badrinath is located at an elevation of around 3,100 m. Located in the Garhwal Himalayas, on the banks of the Alaknanda river, this town lies between Nar and Narayana mountain ranges.
• Pair 02 is correctly matched, Sri Varaha Lakshmi Narasimha temple is a Hindu temple situated on the Simhachalam Hill Range, which is 300 metres above the sea level in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped there as Varaha Narasimha.
• Pair 03 is correctly matched, The Vaishno Devi Temple is a prominent Hindu temple dedicated to goddess Vaishno Devi. It is located in Katra, Reasi on the slopes of Trikuta Hills within the union territory of Jammu & Kashmir.

Read more on Famous Temples in India

Q2. Consider the following statements: (Level-Difficult)
1. PNS Ghazi was a Tench-class diesel-electric submarine that was deployed during 1971 India-Pakistan war.
2. The primary goal of PNS Ghazi was to find and sink INS Vikrant

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both
4. None

Explanation:

• Statement 01 is correct,  PNS Ghazi was a Tench-class diesel-electric submarine, the first fast-attack submarine in the Pakistan Navy. It was deployed during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 and 1971.
• Statement 02 is correct, PNS Ghazi was assigned with a two-fold objective. The primary goal was to find and sink INS Vikrant and the second one was to lay mines on India’s Eastern seaboard with or without accomplishing the primary objective.
Q3. With respect to India August Movement, which of the following statements is/are
correct? (Level-Medium)
1. It was launched at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi, during World War II.
2. It was during this movement, Gandhi gave the slogan to the people – ‘Do or die’.

Options:

1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both
4. None

Explanation:

• Statement 01 is correct, Quit India movement, also known as the India August Movement or August Kranti was launched at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on August 08, 1942.
• Statement 02 is correct, The movement gave the slogans ‘Quit India’ or ‘Bharat Chodo’. Gandhi gave the slogan to the people – ‘Do or die’.
Q4. Which one of the following diseases is caused by cadmium pollution?
(Level-Medium)
1. Achondroplasia
2. Infant Methemoglobinemia
3. Itai Itai
4. Minamata

Explanation:

• Itai-itai disease is caused by cadmium exposure, produced as a result of human activities related to industrialisation, and this condition was first recognised in Japan in the 1960s. Itai-itai disease is characterised by osteomalaecia with severe bone pain and is associated with renal tubular dysfunction.
Q5. Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea behind the
“Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” often talked about in the media?
(Level-Difficult)(CSE PYQ-2022)
1. A hypersonic missile is launched into space to counter the asteroid approaching the Earth and explode it in space.
2. A spacecraft lands on another planet after making several orbital motions.
3. A missile is put into a stable orbit around the Earth and deorbits over a target on the Earth.
4. A spacecraft moves along a comet with the same speed and places a probe on its surface.

Explanation:

• A Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) is a warhead delivery system that uses a low earth orbit towards its target destination. Just before reaching the target, it de-orbits through a retrograde engine burn.
• It was developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The system is used to launch nuclear warheads from space.
•  In August 2021, China tested a weapon that combined a FOBS with a hypersonic glide vehicle.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. Discuss the common reasons for child abandonment and suggest measures to  help prevent such an abandonment. (10 Marks; 150 Words) (GS-1; Social Issues)
2. A combination of politics, inflation and higher interest rates is posing a greater threat to the UK’s financial system. Examine. (10 Marks; 150 Words) (GS-2; International Relations)