The immunization drive in India is aimed at introducing advanced vaccines all across the country to strengthen the immune system against serious health conditions and diseases. This a vast topic and is crucial for all IAS exam aspirants. Read on to understand a few important facts on the immunization drive of India.
Aspirants should know that the Government of India and state governments take initiatives to strengthen the public health sector through various schemes. Check those schemes in the linked articles below:
|National Health Mission||National Rural Health Mission|
|National Urban Health Mission||National Health Assurance Mission|
|Ayushman Bharat Programme||National Ayush Mission|
Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)
Read the points mentioned below to track the development of universal immunization programme:
- Universal Immunization Programme was launched in 1985 after renaming expanded immunization programme of 1978.
- In 1992, Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme got Universal Immunization Programme as its part.
- In 1997, Universal Immunization Programme became a part of the National Reproductive and Child Health Programme.
- Universal Immunization Programme is an integral part of NRHM.
- The Universal Immunization Programme is taken as one of the largest public health programmes.
- As per the government data, 2.67 crores newborns and 2.9 crores pregnant women are targetted under this programme.
- The programme is said to be largely responsible for the reduction of vaccine-preventable under-5 mortality rate.
- Total of 12 vaccine-preventable diseases are covered against which free immunization is provided:
- Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis
- Hepatitis B
- Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B
- Rotavirus diarrhoea
- Pneumococcal Pneumonia and
- Japanese Encephalitis
- Elimination of Polio in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in 2015 are the two major milestones covered under Universal Immunization Programme.
Immunization Drives – Vaccines
The list below mentions the new vaccines that are a part of immunization drive in India:
- Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
- Rotavirus vaccine (RVV)
- Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccine
- Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)
- Tetanus and adult diphtheria (Td) vaccine
What is the Indradhanush vaccine?
Mission Indradhanush is a major health mission by the government of India launched on @5 December 2014. The scheme seeks to drive towards 90% full immunization coverage of India and sustain the same by 2020.
What is the vaccine alliance Gavi?
Gavi is an international organization – a global Vaccine Alliance, bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries. It was created in 2000. It is situated in Geneva, Switzerland.
How does GAVI work?
The Gavi team will create a joint action plan with the government, marking out specific milestones and timelines, and providing targeted release of funds.
There will also be an active communication programme to take the message of vaccination to people and explain the benefits of the new vaccine.
The topic, ‘Immunization Drive in India’ is important from the context of Indian Society, Social Justice and Governance. These make important sections of the civil services examination. Candidates can get an idea of what types of questions are asked in the mains by following the links mentioned below. These links provided previous year questions asked in the mentioned sections of UPSC Mains papers:
|Indian Society Questions for UPSC Mains GS 1||Governance Questions for UPSC Mains|
|Social Justice Questions for UPSC Mains||Science & Technology Questions for UPSC Mains GS 3|