This article talks about littoral forest and swamp forest in India.
Littoral forests and Swamp forests are also called the wetland forests. India has rich variety of these type of forest. They are mainly found in reservoirs of Deccan Plateau, saline coast of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Gulf of Kutch, Eastern Coast Deltas, lakes and Rivers of Kashmir and Ladakh, Swamps in North East India.
Classification of Littoral Forests:
The Littoral forests can be classified into the following types:
- Beach forests: In the Beach forests, the rainfall varies from 75 cm to 500 cm depending upon the area. The temperature in these forests is moderate. The common plants found in these forests are Manilkara littoralis, Thespesia, Spinifex littoreus, Casuarina equisetifolia, Pandanus, Borassus, Cocos nucifera,Phoenix, Callophyllum littoralis, Barringtonia, Pongamia. A number of twiners and climbers are also found in these forests.
- Tidal forests : The Tidal forests are also popularly known as the or Mangrove forests. Mangrove forests grow along coast in the salt marshes, tidal creeks and estuaries. It is home to large variety of birds. The Tidal forests are further broadly classified into the following four types:
(i) Tree mangrove forests
(ii) Low mangrove forests
(iii) Salt water forests and
(iv) Brackish water forests.
- Fresh water swamp forests: Important plants found here are Salix tetrasperma, Acer, Putranjiva, Holoptelia, Cephalanthus, Barringtonia, Olea, Phoebe, Ficus, Murraya, Adhatoda, Canna and a variety of grasses.
Consider the following statements with respect to Littoral forest:
- Littoral forests and swamp forests are also called wetland forests.
- There are 5 types of Littoral forests and swamp forests
Which of the statements given above are correct:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
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