27 May 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 27 May 2022:-

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Knotty supply chains deepen global chip shortage
ENVIRONMENT
1. Green hydrogen: Fuel of the future?
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Sighting the finishing line in measles-rubella elimination
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Security in friendship
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. Learning loss will dent India’s GDP: ADB
2. NSCN (I-M) rigid as Centre pushes for solution
3. India, Japan to work together to help Sri Lanka during crisis
4. Where tortoise conservation is devotion
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


1. Green hydrogen: Fuel of the future?

Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

Mains: The need for advancing green hydrogen capabilities, advantages of Green hydrogen and the current status of India’s green hydrogen capabilities.

Context

The Indian Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas said that India will emerge as the leader in green hydrogen.

Details

• The Minister at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland said that India can take advantage of the current energy crisis in the world.
• Recently, Oil India Limited (OIL) started India’s first 99.99% pure green hydrogen plant in Jorhat, Assam.

Green hydrogen

• Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most abundant chemical element in the universe.
• Also, hydrogen is colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic and highly combustible.
• Hydrogen produced through the electricity generated without emitting greenhouse gas is called “Green hydrogen”.
• Green hydrogen is produced through electrolysis using renewable sources of energy like solar, wind or hydel energy.
• Grey hydrogen is generated through fossil fuels such as coal and gas and currently accounts for 95% of the total production in South Asia.
• Blue hydrogen is produced using electricity generated by burning fossil fuels but with technologies that prevent the carbon released in the process from entering the atmosphere.

Reasons for developing green hydrogen capabilities for India

• India is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 33-35% from the 2005 levels under the Paris Agreement of 2015
• India also committed to shifting from a fossil and import-dependent economy to a net-zero economy by 2070 at the 2021 Conference of Parties in Glasgow.
• India imports energy worth more than $100 billion annually which dents its purse significantly. • India has become a high carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter constituting about 7% of the global CO2 burden due to increased consumption of fossil fuel. • The Indian government is undertaking various initiatives to use green hydrogen as an alternative fuel and make India the global hub of green hydrogen. Status of green hydrogen production in India • India has started to produce green hydrogen with an aim to increase the non-fossil energy capacity to 500 gigawatts by 2030. • In April 2022 the public sector OIL headquartered in eastern Assam’s Duliajan established India’s first 99.99% pure green hydrogen pilot plant with a view of making the country ready for the pilot-scale production of hydrogen and its use in various applications. • R & D efforts are continuously undertaken to decrease the cost of production, storage and the transportation of hydrogen. • The plant at Jorhat in Assam is powered by a 500 KW solar plant and has the capacity to generate 10 kg of hydrogen/day which can be increased to 30 kg/day. • A specialised blender is also set up for blending green hydrogen produced from the unit with the natural gas supplied by the Assam Gas Corporation Limited and supplying the blended gas to the Jorhat area for domestic and industrial use. • OIL takes the help of researchers from IIT-Guwahati to monitor the impact of the blended gas on the existing facility. Advantages of Green Hydrogen • Green hydrogen can be stored for longer periods of time. • The stored hydrogen can be utilized to generate electricity using fuel cells. • A fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy into electricity. • In a fuel cell, hydrogen reacts with oxygen to generate electricity and water vapour. • The discontinuous characteristic of renewable energy, particularly wind energy leads to grid instability and hydrogen acts as an energy storage device and increases grid stability. • Researchers believe that the oxygen, produced as a by-product in the fuel cell (8 kg of oxygen is produced for 1 kg of hydrogen) can also be utilised in industrial and medical applications and also for enriching the environment. Nut Graf Green hydrogen is regarded as the “fuel of the future” and various initiatives undertaken by India to increase its capabilities in green hydrogen production are laudable because it helps unlock new opportunities as green hydrogen is considered an emerging market by renewable energy developers. 2. NSCN (I-M) rigid as Centre pushes for solution • The Centre and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) or the NSCN (I-M) signed the Framework Agreement in August 2015, which facilitated the path to a solution to the “Naga political issue”. • The solution process reached a deadlock as NSCN (I-M) demanded a separate flag and the Yehzabo (Naga constitution), as part of the deal. • As the government looks to solve the issue, the Centre is said to have proposed to use the “Naga national flag” as a cultural flag. • However, the NSCN (I-M), has held that the Naga national flag that symbolises Naga political identity is not negotiable. • The NSCN (I-M) signed a ceasefire agreement with the government in 1997 and its rival NSCN (Khaplang) signed in 2001 and pulled out of it in March 2015. • Later many factions of the NSCN (Khaplang) and other outfits formed the Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) and signed the Agreed Position with the Centre in 2017. • NNPGs are not demanding a separate Naga flag or a constitution. 3. India, Japan to work together to help Sri Lanka during crisis • India and Japan have agreed to collaborate and assist Sri Lanka which is experiencing a severe economic and humanitarian crisis. • India has already extended about$3.5 billion in assistance since January 2022 through loan deferments and credit lines for essential imports.
• And Japan’s initiative comes despite the scrapping of two major infrastructure projects by Sri Lanka that involved Japanese establishments.
• Further, the two countries held bilateral talks on “close cooperation” to promote measures to ensure a ‘Free and Open Indo-Pacific’, along with collaboration in sectors such as defence, clean energy, and investment.
• The two countries also shared the view to collaborate to develop the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework into an inclusive framework that benefits the region.

4. Where tortoise conservation is devotion

• As there is an emphasis in recent years on the need to protect turtles and tortoises and their disappearing habitats, a temple in Kerala’s Kasaragod has been protecting and conserving tortoise species for several centuries.
• The tortoises are protected and conserved in a naturally formed pond in the temple which has a structure (mandapam) in the middle for feeding tortoises. There is a sculpture of Kurmavatara which is considered to be the second of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
• It is believed that over 400 tortoises survive in the pond belonging to different species including those which are endangered. This has helped researchers and officials of the Forest Department to study the various species.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. With respect to the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO), which of the following
statements is/are correct? (Level – Medium)
1. It was established on the recommendation of the Naresh Chandra Committee.
2. It can take up cases suo moto.
3. It falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

Options:

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct, SFIO was established in January 2003, based on the recommendation of the Naresh Chandra Committee on corporate governance.
• Statement 2 is not correct, SFIO does not have the mandate under the provisions of the Companies Act to suo-motu investigate the matter raised.
• SFIO starts an investigation only after receiving an order from the Union government which means that it cannot take up cases on its own.
• Statement 3 is correct, SFIO falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Asian Development Bank (ADB):
(Level – Medium)
1. India is a founding member of the Asian Development Bank.
2. It was established in 1991 after the end of the cold war and was modelled on the lines of the World Bank.
3. The Asian Development Outlook is an annual publication produced by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct, India is a founding member of the Asian Development Bank.
• Statement 2 is not correct, ADB was established in the year 1966, with head office in Manila and is modelled on the lines of the World Bank.
• Statement 3 is correct, The Asian Development Outlook is an annual publication released by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Q3. Which of the following statements about Bharatnatyam is/are correct?
(Level – Easy)
1. A Bharatnatyam performance ends with a tillana which has its origin in the tarana of Hindustani music.
2. To show the dexterity of the dancers in footwork and their control and balance over their bodies, techniques like dancing on the rim of a brass plate and with a pitcher full of water on the head were introduced in Bharatnatyam.
3. The person who conducts the dance recitation is the Nattuvanar.

Options:

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct, A Bharatnatyam performance ends with a tillana which has its roots in the tarana of Hindustani music.
• Statement 2 is not correct, To show the dexterity of the dancers in footwork and their control and balance over their bodies, techniques like dancing on the rim of a brass plate and with a pitcher full of water on the head were introduced in Kuchipudi.
• Statement 3 is correct, The vocalist is called the Nattuvanar, usually, he is also the conductor of the entire performance.
Q4. With respect to Krishna River, which of the following statements is/are correct?
(Level – Medium)
1. The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River
2. Almatti Dam is a hydroelectric project on the Krishna River in North Karnataka
3. Krishna River is the third-longest river of India
4. Musi is the left bank tributary of Krishna

Options:

1. 1, 2 and 3 only
2. 2, 3 and 4 only
3. 1, 3 and 4 only
4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct, Tungabhadra River is the main and largest tributary of Krishna and is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers.
• Statement 2 is correct, The Almatti Dam also known as Lal Bahadur Shastri Dam is a hydroelectric project on the Krishna River in North Karnataka.
• Statement 3 is correct, Krishna River is the third-longest river in India in terms of length after Ganga and Godavari.
• Statement 4 is correct, Musi is a left bank tributary of Krishna along with Bhima, Paleru and Munneru.
• Right bank tributaries include Venna, Koyna, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra.

Q5. Consider the following statements: (Level – Difficult) [PYQ 2021]

Statement 1: The United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) and the Arbor Day Foundation have recently recognized Hyderabad as 2020 Tree City of the World.

Statement 2: Hyderabad was selected for the recognition for a year following its commitment to grow and maintain the urban forests.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

1. Both Statement 1 and Statement 2 are correct and Statement 2 is the correct explanation for Statement 1
2. Both Statement 1 and Statement 2 are correct but Statement 2 is not the correct explanation for Statement 1
3. Statement 1 is correct but Statement 2 is not correct
4. Statement 1 is not correct but Statement 2 is correct

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is not correct, The Arbor Day Foundation, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations, declared Hyderabad as the “Tree City of the World” in 2020.
• Mumbai has been declared as the “Tree City of the World 2021”.
• Statement 2 is correct, Hyderabad is selected for this recognition for its commitment to grow and maintain urban forestry.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. The QUAD can help reshape economic alliances and regional security architecture. Critically analyse. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS II – IR)
2. How did the world reach to a point of global chip shortage? What are the hurdles associated with overcoming this shortage? Discuss with emphasis on its economic and strategic impact. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS III – Economy)