IAS Preparation – Current Affairs: Indo-Bangladesh Relations
students, welcome to Byju’s classes. In this session we will be seeing India, Bangladesh relationship. Narendra Modi has recently visited Bangladesh and there was a series of agreements and treaties signed in between the two countries. So given this news being important for u psc let us see what are the different types of questions which we will expect both prelims and mains. This is an issue from international relations and international relations whenever students I usually read, they do a mistake by reading some editions which usually come on foreign policy and you usually see books for upsc on international relations which give countries specific and give sequence of events that has happened from 1947 till date. Just take an example if the book is written in 2013 or in1014 also. If you are reading India and Sreelanka relationship, India’s relation with Sreelanka, from Rajapakse was in power is different from what is happening today. India’s relationship with Bangladesh, before Modi government and after Modi government is different. So with changing prime ministers and presidents usually, the relationship between the countries also keep changing. So how do we approach ours preparation to international relations? So here what we would be doing in this session is that India Bangladesh, we will just take this as an example to show how actually we should approach for international relationships. First thing, that you should do is understanding historical significances, understand the political parties which are in power in other countries, see howthe relationship of different political parties and different political personalities with India was, how it has changed over a period of time and what is the present one. Along with this you should see there are some longstanding issues between India and it’s neighbors especially, so identify those issues and try to see what has happened in that particular issue right from independence till now. Rather than going the other way around, that is when you take sequence of events that you usually get 1971 Bangladesh got independence, 1972 farakka barrage was constructed 1075, shiek Mujibur Rahman died so this is not the order in which you have to read. You need to get a complete understanding about a particular issue. UPSC will not give you any questions about directly asking what is the relationship between India and Bangladesh. They usually give you a particular dispute or any event and ask you to elaborate on India and Bangladesh relationship on that particular stuff. So given this, first let us see what is the basic relationship between India and Bangladesh, how does it change with political parties. I hope most of you are aware that 1970, ( @3.14) 1971 is the time when Bangladesh got independence. In 1970, There was elections in Pakistan, west Pakistan and east Pakistan. East Pakistan was actually headed by sheik Mujibur Rahman and his political party. Sheik Mujibur Rahman won and he was about to take power but the west Pakistan dominated by the Punjabis did not want a Bengali to come to power. So that point of time there was civil war between East Pakistan and West Pakistan or the supports of the West Pakistan and Bengalis within Bangladesh. And most of the refugees even including you know including Sheik Mujibur Rahman, he came to India and he was staying in India. India helped the Bengali brothers and they got independence on 1971. Given India’s rule in its independence, Shiek mujibur Rahman and his political party Awami League supported India. At this point of time, if you take globally, Shiek mujibur Rahman became pro- India and anti- Pakistan. This was 1970-71 was called war era, at this time Pakistan was part of U.S, so Shiek mujibur Rahman government was rejected by U.S there was an all weather friend of Pakistan, that is China, China also rejected Bangladesh, then India, which was another country which was pro it was USSR. So Shiek Mujibur Rahman and Awami league was pro India and USSR and it was anti Pakistan, U.S and china. Next, if you take in 1975, shiek Mujibur Rahman was assassinated and Ziaur Rahman and there was a military coup in Bangladesh and Ziaur Rahman was given to power. So Ziaur Rahman when he replaced like you know when Mujibur Rahman was killed and Ziaur Rahman when he came to power, Indi a did not support Ziaur Rhman. So Ziaur RAhman became anti India because he was not supported politically and he was anti USSR. But he was pro U.S and pro China. But he was not pro Pakistan. Because Pakistan has involved in (@6.14 ) against Bengalis in 1970’s so he was anti Pakistan as well. So this was the scenario. In 1981, Ziaur Rahman was assassinated and Irshid comes to power so when Irshid come to power actually India will have good relations with Irshid, so whenever Awami league comes to power. India has given good relations to the historical significance. Ziaur Rhman established BNP and this party will take anti India stands usually in its domestic politics. So with change in political parties the relationship between India and Bangladesh also changes. So if you take Awami league and daughter of Shiek Mujibur Rahman Shiek Hassina, when she comes to power good relations are usually developed and whenever Ziaur Rahman and his spouse khaleedazia when it comes to power, many international thinker will say that there will be negative relationships, or the BNP usually promote activities which are anti India and Bangladesh. So given this political scenario, whenever there are problems between India and Bangladesh, it will be solved peacefully whenever Awami league comes to power, so Awami league whenever it goes for elections it says that please vote us so that the problems between India and Banglaesh can be resolved bilaterally and co-operatively. But whenever BNP comes to power they say that India is bad so we should be going pro China, or any other country, so that we can counter India and by force we should actually get whatever is the issues that needs to be solved. So Ziaur Rahman and other political parties usually take multi laterals .that is like you know they actually go to SARC or United nations and they claim for whatever rights that they usually have to get, whether it is a boarder problem or It is a water sharing agreement it is usually the other political parties which politicize the issue and go out of talks, rather than sustaining the talks between the bilateral level. India wants any issue between India and Bangladesh, for that matter any issue with its neighbors to be solved bilaterally and it don’t want to go to multilateral organizations like the United Nations to solve it, but the smaller neighbors usually prefer to go to multilateral organizations because, if they are talking bilaterally India will not _ them. So this is the mindset that is exist between India and it’s neighbors, and specifically with India and Bangladesh. The relationship also varies with various political parties. So given this basic understanding, let us see the different issues that we have with India and Bangladesh which we will be focusing in this session. So the first problem is the land boundary agreement. If you take land boundary agreement, this is all about exchanging of enclaves . here we have to see why this problem actually what is an enclave from geography point of view, and how they solving or what the disputes needs to be solved and what are the merits and demerits of agreement that we have signed recently. Then there is another water issue, there are almost 54 rivers which flow between India and Bangladesh.
So Bangladesh is completely dependent up on the waters which flows from India. Any dams that are constructed on these rivers is seen skeptically by the people. Even though India has helped Bangladesh to get independence most of the people do not like India, the major reason for this is that of the water dispute which actually exist between us. So we need to understand what is the water dispute that is there between India and Bangladesh, for that Teesta water dispute will help us in understanding better. The third major event which is forgotten by most of the students, but still it is of significant for your mains exam and also for prelims exam is Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary Dispute between India and Bangladesh. This was last year news, but this was not asked in 2014 mains. So there is a high possibility that there may be a question on this in 2915 exam. The next important treaty which is forgotten but still news because India Bangladesh visits and improving significance between the two is Indo –Bangladesh extradition treaty. There we need to see the militants like Arvind Rajagoa and other ulfa leaders and also NSCN and other militants who usually hide in Bangladesh, if they are caught in Bangladesh, how we extradite them what are the principles that are involved. Given the scenario in North East and the militants misusing the poorest boarders between India and Bangladesh it is important for us to have an extradition treaty and India and Bangladesh have recently agreed on that. So let us see what are these issues. In international relations, whenever you take any topic, any country, don’t just go by issues, like you know one after the other, take one issue at a time and go in detail as we do in this particular lecture. So first, let us take, land boundary agreement. India and Bangladesh, so earlier it was Pakistan, East Pakistan and west Pakistan after 1947 till 1971, Pakistan was there. So you had some issues in boarder between India and Bangladesh. Kashmir between Pakistan and India today, but with Bangladesh also there was no proper demarcation of the territory. The reason being there were few enclaves, which were present on either side of the territory, which actually belong to other country, that is what I mean to say here is there were few territories of Bangladesh present deep inside Indian territory and there were few territories of India present deep inside Bangladesh. So there was a need for exchange of these enclaves. Which was not possible till today. So to understand the problem let us see what an enclave means or what is an enclave. So if you take enclaves right? you will see first order enclave, second order enclave, third order enclave or counter- counter and exclaves. UPSC may give you prilims based questions on these terms so first we should see what is the meaning of an enclave and an exclave. If you see this particular picture, you can see if you take this as A, like you know country A, along the red color is country A, along with this you can see red color here A4, this is A5, let me call this as A1, this as A2 and this as A3 right? If you see the territory of A is not present at one particular place it is distributed between other countries as well. So what is an enclave? So if I tell enclave, enclave is a part of territory or part of a country’s territory which is surrounded by other countries territory. That means if you take the case of A3 or A4, okay? A4 is actually surrounded by E. so A4 is an enclave. If you take A3, A3 is present outside the territory of A and it is completely surrounded by a foreign territory. So we call it to be exclave. Enclaves, exclaves, sometimes enclaves are also exclaves, exclaves are also enclaves but here what is important for us to understand is that if you have a territory, that is if you take A4, which part of A, present within A but surrounded by a foreign country you call it to be enclave. If a part of A is present outside the political boundary of A, physical boundary of A and it is surrounded by a foreign territory, then you call it be an exclave. But if you take A2 and A1, if you take A2, A2 is surrounded by foreign countries, but it is not surrounded by one country. So if a territory is not covered by only by a foreign country, you will not call it to be an enclave, here if you take you have A1 only partially it is covered. So it not completely surrounded by other territory, you will not call A1 to be an enclave or an exclave. So here what is important for us to understand? Enclave is a piece of land of a particular country, surrounded by a foreign territory, if it is present within India, we will call it to be enclave, if it is present outside India, we will call it to be exclave. So between India and Bangladesh, if you see Bangladesh territories are present within in India, west Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, like you know, in these places you usually see that Indian enclaves are present and Bangladesh enclaves present within India and Indian enclaves are also present within Bangladesh. Why did this happen? Historically it is been said that there were two kings playing cards or chess, and if one person lost, like you know, two kings are playing and one king looses, he gives that particular territory to the other king. If another king wins, he will get other territory. So in this fashion, what usually happened? If you have a territory India, it may be surrounded by another territory Bangladesh. Again you may have Indian territory around it, okay? If you have Bangladeshi territory, completely surrounded by Indian territory, you call it first order enclave. If you have again Bangladeshi territory coming around you will call it to be second order, if you have another one Indian territory, then you call it to be third order or counter –counter enclave. Different definitions for prelims point of view. So given the historical significance the two kings played and some portions were distributed on either side. 1947, the kings were asked either to join India or Bangladesh. so one king joined India another king joined Pakistan. usually what happens when one king joined India, if you take Bangladesh, let us say here you had Indian territory, okay? So actually after that king joining India this particular portion also becomes India’s. there was a particular portion here , which was of Pakistan’s, which should have gone to Pakistan, but India and Pakistan failed to make an agreement to exchange the particular boarder. So this actually led to lot of troubles for the people who were actually staying here. this were not uninhabited areas. People were present in this particular areas, take for example. The people who are present in Bangladesh, how will they visit Bangladesh? Like you know if there is a crime in this particular area, and if Bangladeshi police want to come inside this particular area, they have to cross Indian boarder. India will not allow them to come to Indian boarder. On the same hand if Indians who are present in the Bangladeshi boarder if they have to come to India, they have to take permission from Bangladesh. Bangladesh will not give permission. This had created actually a lot of trouble for the people who were staying in these enclaves, so the only way to get rid of this problem was if land or enclaves is in Indian side all these enclaves should belong to India, if the enclaves are there in the Bangladeshi side, all these enclaves should actually belong to Bangladesh. until and unless such an agreement is done, then nothing of this sort, no exchange can be possible. So what all were the major measures taken to solve this particular issue? Let us see historically. So if you see in 1958, Jawahrlal Nehru and the Pakistani head at that particular point of time, Noon, there was an agreement between these two in 1958 to solve the enclave’s issue. But the (@20;19 ) scenario between India and Pakistan at that point of time did not allow for an agreement to come.1971, after Awami league came to power India and Bangladesh especially IndiraGandhi and Shiek Mujibur Rahman they went for a land boundary agreement in 1974. So in this they actually thought of physically exchanging that is they will demark it all the enclaves which are present on Indian side will be with India and enclaves which are present on Bangladeshi side will be with Bangladesh. This agreement was signed between the two, but, this needs rectification by the parliament. What is the problem in Indian constitution, if you see Indian constitution clearly says that if you want to acquire a foreign territory you can acquire it, but if you want to give a part of your territory to others then the executives signature is not enough where you need the parliament to pass a constitutional amendment with special majority in both the houses. And the president has to agree on that. so here in 1974, when India and Bangladesh went for this, Bangladesh rectified through its parliament, but India failed to rectify it. 1975, Mujibur Rahman was assassinated and after that for 5-6 years you have ziaur rahman India was not interested in solving the problem especially in this (@ 21;58 ), and after 1981, when Ziaur Rahman was assassinated, when irshid came to power in 1982, what India said, until and unless we go for this, complete exchange or complete rectification India said, India will give a corridor, Tin Bagha corridor to Bangladesh on lease so that Bangladeshis can actually use this corridor to come to their enclaves and provide whatever help is required. So the people who are present in these enclaves they can use this Tin Bagha corridor. It was opposed by most of the political parties inside India, who usually said that like you know why are you selling out India? Why are you giving a part of Indian territory to Bangladesh so there were lot of issues related to that. In 2011, shiek haseena, Awami league, came to power, at that point of time, you had congress government here. So the congress government and the Awami league, they both agreed on a protocol and it needed a constitutional amendment which was passé recently. So as per this protocol, India will give 111 Indian enclaves which are present in Bangladesh to Bangladesh and Bangladesh will give 51 enclaves of theirs which is present within India to Indians. so in this physical exchange one important issue that actually happened is that India is giving 111 and Bangladesh is giving only 51. So if you take the total area, so Bangladesh will be gaining some area India will be loosing some area if you see on paper. That is Indian territory which was present in Bangladesh is going to Bangladesh completely. There was more Indian territory in Bangladesh than Bangladeshi territory in India, so with this agreement, India will be loosing some territory. But to be frank if you see India never had access to these islands or these enclaves. How will you pass through Bangladesh and will give law and order there were lot of problems which was actually seen in these enclaves. Something like, like you know drugs, smuggling activity, like you know there were lot of opium smugglers this became a hot bed or hot place for anti national activities both against Bangladeshis and against Indians, so this became a major security issue for both. So 2011 protocol actually aimed at this, in the last minute, the government did not go for rectification, because parliament did not approved it. Recently the Narendra Modi government had got it rectified and when he went to Banladesh, it was exchanged. So there is a time line now fixed, like you july 31 is considered as the official date of this exchange, that is after July 31st the enclaves which are present at Bangladesh will be part of Bangladesh, and enclaves which are present in India will be part of India, the people who are present there, if they have already got citizenship, like you know there are Indian enclaves in Bangladesh, when they can come back. And if there is Bangladeshi citizens they can go back. If there are few people who do not have citizenship, on both sides, then they can choose on their wish, like you know, whether they want to go back, in Bangladesh, or they want to stay back in India, Modi government has repeatedly said this, this land boundary agreement will stop illegal migration. The reason is that most of the people whenever through these enclaves,like you know they claim that we are from Indian enclaves and they are either enter in to West Bengal or Assam even from Indian side there are few people who are enter into Bangladesh. So the government says that with this agreement we are stopping the movement of these people, which will actually curb illegal migration. Illegal migration is a big issue in Assam and other parts. The reason being, if you take Assam ,you have bodos and other people who were in majority in few bodo lands. But with illegal migration increasing, lot of migration come from Bangladesh, it is said that lot of Bengali muslims are present in this areas and there is demographic change in this particular areas. So when ever elections happen in this area, these people will actually vote against the bodo interest. So this is the dispute which is actually leading to bodo clashes like you see lot of massacres of people who are actually present in the bodo land. So this is an issue associated with illegal migration as well. So land boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh is seen as a positive step. Shiek haseena who did not actually attend Narendra Modi’s swaring in ceremony was actually going closer towards China, though in the beginning China had bad relations with Awami league. China actually started having good relations with both political parties because at the end of the day China was more concerned about it’s economic gain, rather than the political influence. So Shiek Haseena was also going closer, once Modi government came to power in India. But, with Modi government signing these treaties it has built lot of confidence in the Bangladeshi people, who are actually coming closer to India .i will thing other important things happened due this agreements. So due to this agreements, smuggling, illegal activities and trans-boarder crimes like you know organized women trafficking an all have been controlled. This is an issue related to land boundary agreement
. So let’s take other issue, that is Teesta water dispute. You have almost around 54 rivers which passes between India and Bangladesh. Bangladesh being a lower riparian is usually depending upon these rivers. So that any dams that are being constructed in this rivers, without taking Bangladesh in to confidence, is see negatively by the Bangladeshi people. So this is one major issue which has made most of the Bangladeshi peoples to be anti- India, because they see this as a big brother attitude. in 1971, when Shiek MUjibur Rahman came to power, in 1972 itself India constructed the farakka barrage on ganges and unilaterally. Like you know without taking Bangladesh into confidence . this was seen most of the anti Indians who were actually present within Bangladesh that was they were pro Pakistan they actually started saying that this is the actual attitude or mindset of India, so we should actually go for treaties on all the rivers so that India will release the required amount of water to Bangladesh. Out of 54 rivers till date you have only one river treaty between India and Bangladesh, that is on the Ganges river. That is only for 30 years, it is not a permanent treaty. If you take Indus water between India and Pakistan, it is permanent. But if you take Inda and Bangladesh Ganges it is only for 30 years. It is signed in 1996 and it is till only 2026. Okay, even in that what is the agreement actually says is distribution of rivers only during lean season and not throughout the year, so India and Bangladesh especially whichever political party comes, whether it is Awami league or BNP, the skeptic about India mainly in the water sharing. So awami league , when it comes to power it tries to push to reserve water disputes between India and Bangladesh. Teesta river which actually originates in Sikkim, and passes through west Bengal and enters into Bangladesh, if you see India has constructed almost three dams in teesta in West Bangal. two hydroelectric projects and one is an irrigation project. So Teesta which is having lean period especially from December to March, like you know at that time there will be fight between West Bangal and Bagladesh over the water sharing. Manmohan Singh government went with the proposal of sharing water with 50-50 like you know, 50% should come to West Bengal and 50% should go to Bangladesh. But when he was about to sign, there was protest from West Bengal chief minister, Mamatha Banerji at that point of time and this led to Mnamohan Singh came back without signing. This was seen as negatively, like you know this this was seen negatively by the Bengladeshi people. Where like they saw that like you know that you almost came to sign and still you could not sign, you went back. Awami league was criticized BNP and other anti India paties which are present in Bangladesh also started protecting against the Awami league political party and its ambitions. So this actually created trouble in India and Bangladesh relationship. If you take the Teesta river it is said that Bangladesh usually cleans that, 21 million people in Bangladesh are actually dependent on the Teesta river, and in West Bengal, its only 8 million people were. The West Bengla government claims that if you take irrigated area, you see that there are more large number of irrigated area in West Bengal which is dependent on the Teesta river than in the Bangladesh. So both sides have their claims. And the West Bengal has constructed the Gazaldoba barrage unilaterally which is seen negatively by the Bangladeshis. So recently when Narendra Modi went, there was huge expectations that he may sign the agreement as Mamtha Banerji also accompanied him. But it did not come into reality, and they have made a joint water commission which was already existing to look into the matter and speeding the process so that a quick agreement is signed on Teesta water. So 54 rivers only 1 agreement and there are 53 rivers which is flowing between India and Bangladesh so Bangladesh trust on India increases if there are more agreements on the water sharing.
The next issue that we have to see is the India Bangladesh extradition treaty. If you take the militants which are present in North east and in Assam, if you take, Ulfa. NSEN, all these it is said that whenever BNP was in power, usually this anti national activity or the militant activities in this area increases. And whenever Awami league is in power, Awami league fights these militants and they actually tries to catch them. One good example is the Ulfa leader who was actually carrying Chinese manufactured arms through Bangladesh to the Ulfa groups, was caught in Indo-Bangladesh boarder by the Awami league. so whenever Awami league comes to power they try to catch these people. But even though you catch these people, these people were punished under Bangladeshi gov. and they were not handed over to India. They will be handed over to India only under the extradition treaty. Eventhough frequent movement of militants on both sides, it is not only that Indian militants are present in Bangladesh, you saw that buldun blast and all that it was actually aimed at fighting against the present Awami league government from the west Bangal. Theer you actually see the even Bangladeshi militants are hiding in India. So if we catch them until and unless we have extradition treaty, we cannot actually exchange. So internationally governments has to go extraction treaty. When I say extradition treaty if militants or anti nationals are caught in other countries, if they have to be send to the home country, then the countries should have signed extridion treaty. Usually with the neighborhood you expect the extradition treaty, if someone is present in other country. Say a person he goes like you know he went anti national and he is hiding in Europe,at that point of time Europe will agree to send him to India, only if have extradition treaty. And there is another important condition within extradition treaty, that is if a particular country, say India, India and Europe. Ok So if Indian national is caught in Europe, Europe is a country which say no to no capital punishment in European union. So if any anti national is caught in Europe and if he has to be extradited to India then the condition on which the Europeans will allow for extraction is that he should not be given capital punishment. So if you extradite people from no capital punishment countries, then you cannot award capital punishment on them. India and Bangladesh extradition treaty is extremely important given the poorest boarders and India and Bangladesh, India and Bangladesh both have the capital punishment, so no other obligations will be usually made. The other important issue between India and Bangladesh that you need to focus is maritime boundary dispute between India and Bangladesh. What is actually the maritime boundary dispute? If you take Bay of Bengal it is shared by India , Bangladesh and Myanmar. So all these three countries have claims on the maritime. But obviously whenever you have a n common area shared by three countries, no one will agree on one particular land. especially when you see Bay of Bengal you do not have a straight line between India Bangladesh and Myanmar. You usually have a curved line right? You do not have a base line, but you have a curved line. So as per international terms, there is united nations convention on law of seas. What it says? It actually divides the boundary that is if you take India coast, okay and if there are islands which are present here, so if I draw a base line, this is a base line, water which is present in between base line is known as internal water. From base line, 12 nautical miles, you usually call it to be territorial water. the name itself indicates that territorial water means it is also part of your territory, and India has soverity over this particular area.so if any other country hasto enter inside India’s nautical mile have to take permission. India can actually catch any person who is entered into this area illegally. Not just in the sea, even in the air if you take airspace also is there till the 12 nautical miles. from this 12 nautical mile to another 12 nautical mile, you usually call it to be contigous zone. That is here you should not restrict them one ship is actually going here. So coast guards can go and ask who are you? Why are you present near us? Like you know what is the intension. Because if this area if someone is there, if you don’t stop them they may enter into your territorial part. So contiguous zone next 12 nautical miles you have to ask why are you present in this particular area. From the base line to 200 nautical miles we usually call it to be exclusive economic zone. So when I say exclusive economic zone, for 200 nautical miles, all the resources which are actually present within this like you know if you have fishes, like you know, fisherman can go and do fishing in this exclusive economic area. If you have oil present in exclusive economic area you can actually go and take. As per international law, beyond exclusive economic zone, whatever is there, is known as high seas that is it does not belong to any one country it is for all the countries. But there is a small loop hole in this. That is in geography you might have heard of a term, continental shelf, right? Continental shelf. What is continental shelf? Continental shelf is nothing butan extension of theterritory itself within the sea. And it is believed that shale gas and other oil is usually seen more in this continental shelf. As per international law, if the maximum for a country to have exclusive economic rights is 200 nautical miles. But if the continental shelf of the country extends beyond 200 nautical miles, then the county’s exclusive economic zone will be beyond the 200 nautical miles, or will be up to continental shelf, so with India and Bangladesh, actually what happened? the problem was if you see India’s claim, India said that the line that you usually draw should be like this but Bangladesh used to say that no, you should actually draw straight line. Why? if you see India was saying that the line has to be like this, Myanmar was telling the line has to be like this. But if Bangladesh joints like this, as per India’s claim and Myanmar’s claim, then what happens? It will actually lose the exclusive economic zone 200 nautical miles and it will also not get the continental shelf which is actually extending beyond the Bangladesh boarder. So Bangladesh said that if you actually go in this way, I will lose my continental shelf. But India said you have to go in this way. What was Bangladesh claim? Bangladesh was claiming like it has to be like this, and it has to extend in this direction. So that from chittagong, if you take Chittagong port 345 nautical miles you usually see continental shelf. So Bangladesh claimed that 345 nautical miles till that particular area we should have the exclusive economic area, the reason was lot of oil was present in this particular area, when Bangladesh fou nd oil resources it actually went for explorations foreign countries, at that point of time India and Myanmar said what you are doing is wrong, because the way you have calculated is wrong. There was an island, which was known as new moor island. There was dispute between India and Bangladesh betweenon this island and due to climate change the sea level increased and new moor island is submerged. The international court it said that the newmoor island belongs to India, and the territory and the line of Bangladesh. Which the Bangladesh was claiming accepted. And it said the delimitations that is the maritime boundary of India Bangladesh and Bangladesh Myanmar has to be done in this way. And from the chittagong port, the international court has given 345 nautical miles to Bangladesh, if you see there was a dispute of almost around 24 thousand hector area, but India got only 6 thousand and the remaining 18-19thousand went to Bangladesh, but still India claimed to even the situation because the dispute was majorly over this for the last four decades like you know when actually the dispute started, the fisher men were not allowed to go in these areas India actually called the Australian stew enter into an agreement, so that there can be a joint exploration in the areas present on Indian side. But the Australian’s and many other international companies they rejected India’s play saying that like you know as this is disputed we cannot come and invest. So given this particular scenario. Both the countries said it is win win situation. India claims India has won because we got newmoor Island and also 6 thousand of what we had actually claimed. And Bangladesh claims that it got 19 thousand. And India’s response when the verdict came we said we also respect the verdict and we welcomed it we call it to be a win win situation was seen positively by Bangladesh. Bangladesh was actually expecting that if this ki nd of verdict comes India may protest it and India may again go to court and it may trouble us. Given this particular scenario what has opened us like you know most of the fisherman can go and utilize and at the same time the benefit is that if Bangladesh goes for oil exploration, India can also invest in this and India can also explore the oil which is present in this particular area. So don’t get into the technicalities how the lines needs to be drawn, but the international code has actually said that Bangladesh claim on the continental shelf has to be given and it has given to Bangladesh and India’s claim on newmoor was also met. So given this what all did we saw till now? We saw lnd boundary agreement between \india and Bangladesh, and then we saw the extradition treaty, we saw maritime boundary, we saw Teesta water. Along with this series of agreement that were signed between India and Bangladesh. India going positively on all these issues. But lot of confidence in Bangladesh. And Bangladesh has given two important ports for India for access, that was Bangladesh’s Mongla port and Chittangong ports were actually allowed for access for India. For example if you take north east, like you know, north east do not have any ports. So if they have to sell anything, if anything has to procure to north east, then usually what is happening ? it used to come either via Myanmar, it used to go Singapore and then to Bangladesh or it has to come to west Bengal and then it has to go. So this was a biggest problem. India was requesting Bangladesh from long time to give access to its ports, especially Monglo port and Chittagong port. Bangladesh has given the new confidence it has gained in the new government, it gave access to these two ports. So what are the benefits of giving access? One thing is that the access to the Chittagong port is important from bilateral point of view and also from India china point of view is because if you take Chittagong port, Chittagong port was developed by China. India had a fear that China is actually developing few ports across India, so that whenever there is war or anything, they may use these ports against India. U.S had termed these ports as string of pearls around India so India was conscious about this. But Bangladesh and other countries especially Sreelanka you have hambantota port. In Bangladesh there is Chittagong port. So all these countries were telling there is only economic pupose. But still India has fear on that. But today, as India has got access to Chittagong port, so many people are claiming that Modi government has removed one pearl from the strings of pearls of China, by gaining access to Chittagong port. And China cannot use Chittagong port for any antinational activities. This is one. Bilaterally if you take SARC is a big failure. The reason being India and Pakistan act as a hurdle, relationship between India and Pakistan acts as a hurdle, for any development that happens in SARC. So most of the people they say that please look in to sub regional organizations. Regional organization SARC, sub regional organization within SARC if you take four countries that is Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal so most of the analysts they say that you four have to come together and you try to go for sub regional organization. So while Bangladesh has given Monglo port and Chittagong port to India, India has said that we will allow Nepal and Bhutan also to get access to this particular port. So this is a positive step in this sub regional organization, UPSC may give two important questions, Modi’s visit to Bangladesh has removed a pearl from the string of pearls of China, second they may ask you that sub regional organization is the future than focusing on the regional organizations like SARC itself. So comment or critically analyze may be the questions. Haseena announced two economic zones in Mangla and Bheramara for india and hoped this would increase Indian investments in Bangladesh substantially. That is we have also gone for bilateral investments where some special economic zones specifically for India will be established within Bangladesh where manufacturing will be done in Bangladesh as well. India will increase power supply. So when Bangladesh give these things in return India agreed that we know the Bangladesh is power hungry, so we increased the power supply from 500 megawatts to 100 megawatts . last, there was some other major things which was signed between India and Bangladesh. One, Inland water transit, that is you have Ganga and Brahmaputhra which actually flows, if we want we can actuallydo t reate between these two countries. And vehicle transit, motor vehicles can actually flow easily in between these countries that Butan, Bangladesh or Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal. This is arranged alphabetically. So there was sub regional agreement on motor vehicle movement in between the countries. then Modi, Bagladesh prime minister Shiek Haseena, and West Bengal chief minister Mamtha Banerji flagged off the Dhakka-Shillong- Guwahati, Kolkota-Dhaka- Agartala buses. If you take Kolkata Dhakka and Agartala, you can see there is new route that coming to connect the north east apart from this silver corridor. That is apart from chicken neck the other corridor, which can be used and which India was waiting eagerly was Kolkota- Dhaka and Agartala. So here you have a straight line that actually passes and connects the north east with the other parts of the India. So these were some of the positive outcomes which came because of India agreeing for land boundary and for the positive notion about the Teesta. So here now the notion is that right wing government whenever it comes to power, they will have bad relations with the country like Bangladesh is removed and there is increasing relationships between India and Bangladesh. Other important thing that has happened here is Indian government has taken Mamtha Banerji, that is a state leader along with him for having a bilateral talk with other country. This shows usually as per constitution, foreign policy is completely of the central government. But here for the first time, like you know now you can see like you know in China also you saw some chief ministers going, with Bangladesh when you see this, involving a state government in solving the issue with a neighbor is a new thing, so a question can be asked. Role of state governments in India’s foreign policy. So tomorrow when we are going for India Sreelanka, relationship, we may see the people or politicians from Tamil Nadu are also involved. So that once an agreement is reached between the two, there is no dispute. So whatever is major news regarding India and Bangladesh, its not that we have covered almost all the issues between India and Bangladesh, international relations based on current affairs we should take those issues and get detail. So we will be seeing other countries in future, in same way. Thank you.