Amur Falcon

Amur Falcon breeds in central Siberia east to Amurland, south to northern and eastern China and winters in eastern and Southern Africa. The Amur Falcons are protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Apart from Nagaland, Amur Falcons roosts in parts of Manipur, Meghalaya and Assam too. They arrive in northeastern parts of India from Siberia and stay about two months in India before they head for warmer climes in Kenya and South Africa in a non-stop flight over the Arabian Sea.

This article will provide information about a migratory bird – Amur Falcon in the context of the IAS Exam.

This is useful for the Environment and Biodiversity section (GS III) of the UPSC Syllabus.

The candidates can read more relevant information for their upcoming exams from the links provided below:

Bonn Convention | Convention on Migratory Species IUCN Red List – Objectives, Categories, List of Critically Endangered Species in India 2023
Biodiversity Hotspots in India TRAFFIC (Biodiversity Conservation Programme)
IUCN Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG) Biodiversity – Species, Genetics & Ecosystem Biodiversity 

Amur Falcon – Introduction

  • Scientific Name of Amur Falcon – Falco amurensis.
  • Nagaland is known as the Falcon Capital of the world.
  • As 1 million Amur Falcons roost in Nagaland, this place in India was declared as the Falcon Capital of the World by the Ornithologists.
  • Doyang reservoir in Nagaland – one of the places where Amur Falcons roosted during their stay in India; also probably this place hosts the single largest congregation of Amur falcons anywhere in the world.
  • These birds roost in Nagaland for a span of 1 month and help in maintaining the ecosystem by feeding on a large number of insects, thus controlling the population of insects.
  • Termites are available in abundance during September and October giving it the necessary food which gives it the necessary energy to carry on the journey to Africa by crossing the Arabian Sea.

Amur Falcon – Small Raptor of the Falcon Family

  • During the winter season, Amur Falcon migrates to Southern Africa.
  • While migrating, the Amur Falcon covers a distance of 22,000 Km, making it one of the longest distances covered by migratory birds.
  • Amur Falcon breeds in the Eastern Siberia region of Russia and Northern China. It breeds from Amurland, and northern Mongolian region to parts of North Korea.
  • These birds migrate in large numbers.
  • While migrating to Southern Africa, the Amur Falcon flies through India.
  • The Amur Falcon stops in Nagaland, parts of Assam, and Manipur.
  • After crossing India, it flies over the Arabian Sea and arrives in Southern Africa.
  • The Amur Falcon migration path also passes through Thailand, Cambodia.
  • They feed on insects in the mid-air.
  • Dragonfly migration coincides with the migration of the Amur Falcon over the Arabian Sea. Hence, they turn out to be the greatest source of food for Amur Falcon.
Amur Falcon

Source – eBird

Amur Falcon – Conservation Efforts

  • India is a signatory of the Convention on Migratory Species. As per this convention, it is mandatory to protect the birds.
  • These species of birds come under the category of Least Concern under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.
  • There was huge uproar in 2012, when Amur Falcon was hunted in large numbers in Pangti village of Wokha district, Nagaland.
  • However, the conservation efforts helped in saving these birds and it was not hunted down in Nagaland.
  • Awareness was spread among the local people with the help of the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) and Nagaland Forest Department. Moreover, these areas are patrolled by protection squads made up of former hunters.

Amur Falcon [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

Other relevant links:

Gist of Kurukshetra Environment Questions from IAS Mains GS 3
UPSC MCQs on Environment UPSC Calendar 2023
UPSC Mains General Studies Paper III – Strategy, Syllabus, Structure UPSC Eligibility Criteria
Daily Video Analysis – The Hindu Newspaper Civil Services Exam
UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice 2023 FAQ on UPSC IAS 2023 for Beginners

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