Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies

There are multiple types of government bodies in India, that we hear on a daily basis in the news. They are very important for the UPSC exam since many of them play vital roles in Indian polity and economy. In this article, you can read about constitutional, statutory, quasi-judicial, judicial and regulatory bodies.

Complement your Indian Polity preparation of the Civil Services Examination with the help of following links:

Constitutional Bodies

Constitutional bodies are important bodies in India that derive their powers and authorities from the Indian Constitution.

  • They are specifically mentioned in the Constitution, meaning they have dedicated articles.
  • Any change in the mechanism of these bodies would require a constitutional amendment.
  • Important bodies such as the Finance Commission, the UPSC, the Election Commission, the CAG, National Commissions for SCs and STs, etc. are constitutional bodies.

For more on constitutional bodies and examples of such bodies, check the linked article.

Statutory Bodies in India

Do you know what are statutory bodies? These are non-constitutional bodies as they do not find any mention in the Constitution.

  • They are also important bodies due to their function.
  • They are created by an Act of Parliament.
  • These are also termed non-constitutional bodies that make rules & regulations and take decisions on behalf of the government.
  • They are called ‘statutory’ since statutes are laws made by the Parliament or the legislature.
  • Since these bodies derive their power from statutes or laws made by the Parliament, they are known as statutory bodies.
  • Some examples of statutory bodies are National Commission for Women, National Human Rights Commission, National Green Tribunal, etc.

List of Important Statutory Bodies in India 

The table below provides you with the updated list of Statutory Bodies, notes of which will be important for the UPSC Prelims & Mains examinations.

Statutory Body in India


Securities & Exchange Board of India SEBI Act, 1992
National Human Rights Commission Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993
National Commission for Women National Commission for Women Act, 1990
National Commission for Minorities National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992
National Green Tribunal National Green Tribunal Act 2010
Armed Forces Tribunal Armed Forces Tribunal Act 2007
Unique Identification Authority of India Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016
Central Vigilance Commission Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003
Commission for Air Quality Management in the National Capital Region (NCR) and Adjoining Areas Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Ordinance, 2020
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005
Competition Commission of India Competition Act, 2002
National Legal Services Authority Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981

Read in detail about these statutory bodies for UPSC from the links mentioned below:

National Human Rights Commission National Commission for Women
National Commission for Minorities National Green Tribunal
Armed Forces Tribunal Central Vigilance Commission
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Competition Commission of India
National Legal Services Authority National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
Government Exam 2023

Regulatory Bodies in India

Regulatory bodies are public or government agencies responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.

  • Some regulatory bodies are independent, which means they are independent of any branch of the government.
  • They are set up to enforce safety and standards.
  • They have the charge of establishing norms of a particular area of human activity, and also supervising the bodies employed in that activity.
  • They are established by legislative acts. 

The main functions of the regulatory body are typically identified as follows:

  • Regulations and guides
  • Review and assessment
  • Licensing
  • Inspection
  • Corrective actions
  • Enforcement
  • Examples of the regulatory body are given in the table below:

Important Regulatory Bodies in India

Regulatory Body Sector 
RBI Banking, monetary policy and finance
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) Insurance 
Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority (PFRDA) Pension
National Housing Bank (NHB) Housing finance
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) Telecom and tariffs
Central Board of Film Certification Film certification and censorship
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) Food safety
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Standards and certification
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) Cricket 

Executive Bodies

These bodies are non-constitutional and non-statutory. 

  • They are not mentioned in the Constitution.
  • They are also not established by an act of Parliament.
  • They are formed by executive resolution or action, which means that they are formed by the government’s action only.
  • They can be converted into a statutory body by enacting a law. For example, the UIDAI was made into a statutory body after it was established by enacting a new law.

List of Executive Bodies

Non-Constitutional Body/Executive Body

Niti Ayog
National Development Council
Central Bureau of Investigation

Judicial Bodies

Judicial bodies are courts in India. Their chief objective is to provide justice by following the laws of the land.

Read about Supreme Court and High Court from the linked articles below:

  1. Supreme Court of India
  2. High Court of India

Quasi-judicial Bodies

A quasi-judicial body can be an individual or body with powers resembling a court of law.

  • They can adjudicate and decide penalties on the guilty.
  • They are different from judicial bodies in that their field is limited compared to a court.
  • They can be formed on a matter pending in court, by court order if the court considers it necessary; the court reserves the right to appoint members of such a body.
  • They can be tribunals for a specific domain, or like an arbitrator.
  • Quasi-judicial bodies have adjudicating powers in such matters as:
    • Breach of discipline
    • Trust in money matters or otherwise
    • Conduct rules
  • Their authority is limited to specific areas like:
    • Financial markets
    • Land use and zoning
    • Public standards
    • Employment law
    • Specific set of regulations of an agency
  • Decisions of a quasi-judicial body are often legally enforceable under the laws of a jurisdiction.

List of Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are:

  1. National Green Tribunal
  2. Central Information Commission
  3. National Human Rights Commission
  4. Tribunal
  5. SEBI

Note: A single body can be a statutory, regulatory, and quasi-judicial body

Difference between Judicial and Quasi-judicial Bodies

  • Judicial decisions are bound by precedent in common law, whereas quasi-judicial decisions are generally not.
  • Judicial decisions may create new laws, but quasi-judicial decisions are based on existing law.
  • Quasi-judicial needn’t adhere to strict judicial rules (of procedure and evidence).
  • Quasi-judicial bodies can hold formal hearings only if they are mandated to do so as per their governing laws.

Kickstart your UPSC 2023 Preparation today!

Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies:- Download PDF Here

Related Links
Polity Notes for UPSC Polity MCQs
NCERT Notes for UPSC PIB Summary
UPSC Current Affairs UPSC Books

Daily News


Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published.