There are multiple types of government bodies in India, that we hear on a daily basis in the news. They are very important for the UPSC exam since many of them play vital roles in Indian polity and economy. In this article, you can read about constitutional, statutory, quasi-judicial, judicial and regulatory bodies.
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Constitutional bodies are important bodies in India that derive their powers and authorities from the Indian Constitution.
- They are specifically mentioned in the Constitution, meaning they have dedicated articles.
- Any change in the mechanism of these bodies would require a constitutional amendment.
- Important bodies such as the Finance Commission, the UPSC, the Election Commission, the CAG, National Commissions for SCs and STs, etc. are constitutional bodies.
For more on constitutional bodies and examples of such bodies, check the linked article.
Statutory Bodies in India
Do you know what are statutory bodies? These are non-constitutional bodies as they do not find any mention in the Constitution.
- They are also important bodies due to their function.
- They are created by an Act of Parliament.
- These are also termed non-constitutional bodies that make rules & regulations and take decisions on behalf of the government.
- They are called ‘statutory’ since statutes are laws made by the Parliament or the legislature.
- Since these bodies derive their power from statutes or laws made by the Parliament, they are known as statutory bodies.
- Some examples of statutory bodies are National Commission for Women, National Human Rights Commission, National Green Tribunal, etc.
List of Important Statutory Bodies in India
The table below provides you with the updated list of Statutory Bodies, notes of which will be important for the UPSC Prelims & Mains examinations.
Statutory Body in India
|Securities & Exchange Board of India||SEBI Act, 1992|
|National Human Rights Commission||Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993|
|National Commission for Women||National Commission for Women Act, 1990|
|National Commission for Minorities||National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992|
|National Green Tribunal||National Green Tribunal Act 2010|
|Armed Forces Tribunal||Armed Forces Tribunal Act 2007|
|Unique Identification Authority of India||Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016|
|Central Vigilance Commission||Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003|
|Commission for Air Quality Management in the National Capital Region (NCR) and Adjoining Areas||Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Ordinance, 2020|
|National Commission for Protection of Child Rights||Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005|
|Competition Commission of India||Competition Act, 2002|
|National Legal Services Authority||Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987|
|National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development||National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981|
Read in detail about these statutory bodies for UPSC from the links mentioned below:
Regulatory Bodies in India
Regulatory bodies are public or government agencies responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
- Some regulatory bodies are independent, which means they are independent of any branch of the government.
- They are set up to enforce safety and standards.
- They have the charge of establishing norms of a particular area of human activity, and also supervising the bodies employed in that activity.
- They are established by legislative acts.
The main functions of the regulatory body are typically identified as follows:
- Regulations and guides
- Review and assessment
- Corrective actions
- Examples of the regulatory body are given in the table below:
Important Regulatory Bodies in India
|RBI||Banking, monetary policy and finance|
|Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)||Insurance|
|Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority (PFRDA)||Pension|
|National Housing Bank (NHB)||Housing finance|
|Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)||Telecom and tariffs|
|Central Board of Film Certification||Film certification and censorship|
|Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)||Food safety|
|Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)||Standards and certification|
|Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)||Cricket|
These bodies are non-constitutional and non-statutory.
- They are not mentioned in the Constitution.
- They are also not established by an act of Parliament.
- They are formed by executive resolution or action, which means that they are formed by the government’s action only.
- They can be converted into a statutory body by enacting a law. For example, the UIDAI was made into a statutory body after it was established by enacting a new law.
List of Executive Bodies
Non-Constitutional Body/Executive Body
|National Development Council|
|Central Bureau of Investigation|
Judicial bodies are courts in India. Their chief objective is to provide justice by following the laws of the land.
Read about Supreme Court and High Court from the linked articles below:
A quasi-judicial body can be an individual or body with powers resembling a court of law.
- They can adjudicate and decide penalties on the guilty.
- They are different from judicial bodies in that their field is limited compared to a court.
- They can be formed on a matter pending in court, by court order if the court considers it necessary; the court reserves the right to appoint members of such a body.
- They can be tribunals for a specific domain, or like an arbitrator.
- Quasi-judicial bodies have adjudicating powers in such matters as:
- Breach of discipline
- Trust in money matters or otherwise
- Conduct rules
- Their authority is limited to specific areas like:
- Financial markets
- Land use and zoning
- Public standards
- Employment law
- Specific set of regulations of an agency
- Decisions of a quasi-judicial body are often legally enforceable under the laws of a jurisdiction.
List of Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are:
- National Green Tribunal
- Central Information Commission
- National Human Rights Commission
Note: A single body can be a statutory, regulatory, and quasi-judicial body
Difference between Judicial and Quasi-judicial Bodies
- Judicial decisions are bound by precedent in common law, whereas quasi-judicial decisions are generally not.
- Judicial decisions may create new laws, but quasi-judicial decisions are based on existing law.
- Quasi-judicial needn’t adhere to strict judicial rules (of procedure and evidence).
- Quasi-judicial bodies can hold formal hearings only if they are mandated to do so as per their governing laws.
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