Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011 - First Caste Census since 1931

Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011 is the first-ever census that generated comprehensive data covering households in both rural and urban areas. It is important to know about the findings of SECC 2011 for the IAS Exam and this article is going to provide you with the relevant details for it.

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When was the last Socio-Economic Caste Census conducted?

It was conducted in 2011.

What was unique about the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) – 2011?

  1. It was the first paperless census in India, conducted on handheld electronic devices, in 640 districts.
  2. It was the first-ever caste-based census since the 1931 census of India.
  3. Data was collected on the count of manual scavengers and transgenders in India.

When was the first caste census conducted in India?

The first caste census was conducted in the year 1881.

How many states, UT and districts were covered in SECC 2011 census?

SECC 2011 census was conducted in all states and UTs.

When were the findings of the Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 released?

The results of SECC 2011 were released in 2015.

In which place was the Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 launched?

SECC 2011 was first launched from Sankhola village of Hazemara Block in West Tripura District, Tripura.

How is the Government of India planning to use the SECC 2011 data?

The Government of India is planning to use the data collected from the Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011, to implement their Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) schemes and to expand Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhar and Mobile Governance (JAM).

How is the Rural Development Ministry planning to utilise the SECC 2011 data?

The Rural Development Ministry is planning to use the SECC 2011 data in the following programmes.

  1. National Food Security Act
  2. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
  3. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

Which were the Ministries responsible for conducting Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011?

  1. Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation – Urban Areas.
  2. Ministry of Rural Development – Rural Areas
  3. Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India – responsible for the caste census.

Caste Census 2011 – Major Findings

  1. The number of households in India – 24.49 Crore, 17.97 crores live in villages.
  2. 10.74 crore households are considered deprived.
  3. Approximately 30% of households in rural areas are landless and they majorly get their income from manual labour.
  4. Around 13% of families in villages live in houses of 1 room.
  5. 56% of rural households lack agricultural land.
  6. SECC 2011 recorded a higher number of illiterates than the numbers recorded in the 2011 Census of India.
  7. 60% of rural households are deprived or poor.
  8. 35% of urban households are poor.
  9. 1.80 Lakh households are engaged in manual scavenging for livelihood. Maharashtra has the highest number of manual scavengers.
  10. 48% of the rural population is female.

Committee formed to design Below Poverty Line (BPL) Census

Dr N C Saxena Committee (for rural areas) and SR Hashim Committee (for urban areas) were constituted to suggest the design of the new Below Poverty Line (BPL) census. They recommended a three-fold classification of households.

  1. Excluded Households: these would be identified by assets owned and income and would not be eligible for welfare benefits of the government.
  2. Automatically Included Households: these would be the households facing extreme social destitution and would automatically be included for the welfare benefits of the government.
  3. Other Households: these households would be eligible for graded benefits decided on the basis of multiple deprivation indicators.

However, both the committees used different parameters for the classification of households in rural and urban areas.

Candidates can go through the video for a better understanding of the measurement of poverty-

Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page.

Related Links

IAS Salary Static GK
Census of India 2011 – 15th Census of India – Key Facts and Data First Census of Free India – [February 9, 1951]
Affirmative Action – Functions, Applications and Examples Difference and Similarities between Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as per Constitution of India
Social Issues in India – An Overview Government Schemes in India – Complete List
Social Welfare – Schemes to Empower Vulnerable Community Mandal Commission – Recommendations, Impact
National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) – Objectives, Functions, Mandate, Chairman, Members Reservation Demands – Discussion in Rajya Sabha TV (RSTV) – The Big Picture
Economically Weaker Section (EWS) – Reservation Will Reservation in Private Sector Stem Naxalism – Rajya Sabha TV (RSTV) – Discussion – The Big Picture
Critical Assessment of the Poverty Alleviation Programmes of India Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention Of Atrocities) Amendment Act 2018
Scheduled Tribes and State-Wise List of Tribes in India  Vulnerability due to Caste
Untouchability (Offences) Act Came into Force – [June 1, 1955] National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) – (Article 338) – 89th Amendment Act


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