Major Issues in the Indian Education System

The Indian Education System has its own share of issues and challenges which need to be resolved so as to provide better and improved education to children, who are the future of the country. Over the years, a lot has changed in the Indian education system but still, there are many loopholes and problems which need to be resolved. 

In this article, we shall discuss in detail the issues and challenges with the Indian Education System and a few counter solutions to overcome these challenges. Also discussed are a few schemes which have been initiated by the Government for the improved education of students across the country. 

Aspirants preparing for the upcoming IAS Exam must carefully go through this article. 

Start your UPSC Exam Preparation now and ace the upcoming examination with the help of links given below:

About the Indian Education System

A major shift in the education system can be observed since the pre and post-British rule till today in India. Initially, children were educated in Gurukuls which was later modified and the modern education system was introduced. 

After India became independent, the constitution committed six fundamental rights, of which one was the Right to Education. It allowed free education for every child up between the age of 6 and 14 years. 

The education system is mainly divided into pre-primary, primary, elementary and secondary education, which is followed by higher studies. 

However, there are many drawbacks and loopholes in this system which if curbed can work for the overall development of the country. 

To know in detail about the Right to Education Act (RTE), aspirants can visit the linked article.

Current Issues in Education in India

Discussed below are the current issues with the Education system in India:

  • Expenditure on education – More funds should be allotted for the development of the education system in India. In the past few years, many beneficial steps have been taken in this direction and if the same is continued India may soon be overcome the current challenges
  • Gross enrolment pattern as followed by the UN must also be adapted by India
  • Capacity utilisation – The world now needs creative minds and the Government must encourage schools to boost the students and utilise their capacities to the max and not let their ideas go unheard
  • Infrastructure facilities – Better infrastructure must be provided especially in Government schools. Since Government is now focussing on digital education, they must undertake steps to provide all necessary facilities in the Government schools and rural areas as well
  • PPP model – Well-designed PPPs can create models of innovation for the school system in India. Thus the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model must be taken into consideration
  • Student-teacher ratio – The number of students in search of proper education is way more in comparison to the teachers and faculty available. Thus, qualified teachers must be appointed to impart knowledge to the future of the country
  • Accreditation and branding – quality standards
  • Students studying abroad – There are many students who choose to study abroad because of these issues in the Indian education system. The concerned authorities must work on them and students must also choose to stay, learn in India and empower the country through their knowledge

UPSC and other Government exam aspirants can also refer to the links given below for exam preparation:

National Education Policy State of School Education in India
The Evolution Of India’s Education Policy Education System In India During British Rule
Digital Education in India Higher and Technical Education in India

Indian Education System Problems and Solutions

There are a few simple solutions which can help in overcoming the problems with the India Education System:

  • Innovations required – India is moving towards digital education. This will help in budding the innovative minds of students and the youth of the country. This will bring a transformation in the Indian education system and the authorities and Government must encourage and boost the young minds to focus on overall development rather than just the book-learning
  • Quality of education – There is a major difference in the quality of education being provided in the rural and urban areas of the country. Steps must be taken to standardize the quality of education across India so that everyone can get equal and unbiased knowledge and opportunities to grow
  • Making education affordable – There are Government schools and educational Institutions which are affordable but lack in terms of infrastructure and quality. On the other hand, there are various private education institutions which demand high fees and have better infrastructure and equipment to study. This disparity must be worked upon and the Government must make education affordable and accessible for all 

Schemes & Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

Given below is a list of Government schemes introduced to enhance the education system in India:

  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – Launched in 2001 with an aim to promote ‘Education for All’, strengthening the existing infrastructure of schools and construction of new schools. To know in details about the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), visit the linked article.
  • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level – It is a focused intervention of Government of India, to reach the “Hardest to Reach” girls, especially those not in school. Read more at Elementary Education: Moving Towards RTE And Quality Improvement
  • Mid Day Meal Scheme – It is one meal that is provided to all children enrolled in government schools, government-aided schools, local body schools, special training centres (STC), madrasas and maktabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). Visit the Mid Day Meal Scheme page to know more
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan – It is a flagship scheme aiming at enhancing secondary education and increasing the enrolment rate by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every home.
  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes – The scheme would facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions in order to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – The scheme to promote girl child education in India. Visit the Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana page to know more about the BBBP campaign

Aspirants can det the detailed UPSC Syllabus for the prelims and mains examination at the linked article and start their exam preparation accordingly. 

Major Issues in the Indian Education System
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Frequently Asked Questions about Indian Education System


What are some of the problems that beset the Indian Education System?

India is a country with more than one billion people, and just one-third of them can read. Rapidly growing size of population, shortages of teachers, books, and basic facilities, and insufficient public funds to cover education costs are some of the nation’s toughest challenges.

How effective is the Indian Education System?

India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.

For any further updates, candidates can visit BYJU’S and get the latest study material and preparation strategy. 

Other Related Links
Measures for Inclusion in Higher Education for Equitable Society UPSC Mains General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus, Strategy & Structure Government Policies for Development and Arising Issues
National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) University Grants Commission (UGC) School Education Quality Index (SEQI)
Global Teacher Prize UPSC FAQ National Recruitment Agency (NRA)


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