India supporters the ban on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purposes. This demand has been articulated by India in the UN through concrete proposals like the Action Plan which was presented in 1988. India also co-sponsored a UN General Assembly resolution (48/75 L) in 1993, which called for early commencement of negotiations for the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
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India has joined the consensus in the Conference on Disarmament on establishing an ad hoc committee to negotiate an FMCT. India believes that this is an integral part of the nuclear disarmament process. It would also go a long way in arresting problems of illegal transfers of nuclear material. India supports efforts for negotiations on a universal, non-discriminatory, and verifiable fissile material cut-off treaty that would prohibit the future production of fissile material for weapons purposes but would permit such production for civilian uses.
Negative Security Assurances (NSAS) And Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZs)
India has always maintained that NSAs provide illusory benefits and that the real security assurance is the complete elimination of nuclear weapons, and also that in the interim if NSAs are to be given, they should be provided through an international, comprehensive, legally-binding, and irreversible agreement. Similarly, consideration of security assurances in the narrow strait-jacket of Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZs) cannot do justice to the wide variety of concerns that emanate from the global nature of the threat posed by nuclear weapons. As a responsible state possessing nuclear weapons, India has stated that it does not intend to use nuclear weapons to commit aggression or for mounting threats against any country. India respects the sovereign choice exercised by states not possessing nuclear weapons in establishing NWFZs based on agreements freely arrived at among the states of the region concerned. At the fifth session of the ASEAN Regional Forum in Manila, India stated that it fully respects the status of the Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in South East Asia and is ready to convert this commitment into a legal obligation. India will remain responsive to the expressed need for commitments to other nuclear-weapon-free zones as well.
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
India is an original signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention, having signed it on 14 January 1993, and was among the first 65 countries to have ratified the Treaty. The universal and non-discriminatory character of the CWC is primarily responsible for a large number of signatories and the equally large numbers of ratifications. The implementation of the CWC involves a combination of voluntary declarations and mandatory verification arrangements aimed at ensuring compliance transparently and universally. A National Authority (NA) has been set up to oversee the implementation of the Convention in India. As the first Chairperson of the Executive Council of the Organization for Chemical Weapons(OPCW), India guided the deliberations of the organization during its crucial first year. Implementation of all obligations assumed by India to the Convention and related activities have proceeded satisfactorily. India believes that the provisions of the Convention require to be implemented in a non-discriminatory manner. National implementing legislation containing provisions that undermine the Convention hold out the prospect of leading to matching responses by other states parties thereby leading to an unnecessary dilution of the spirit and the confidence reposed in the CWC by a great majority of countries party to the CWC. Similarly, the existence of technology denial regimes such as the Australia Group remains an aberration when seen against a large number of ratifications the Convention has enjoyed so far.
Biological And Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
India ratified the Biological Weapons Convention in 1974. India has participated in all four Review Conferences of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and in the meetings of the Group of Governmental Experts. India is currently participating in the negotiations of the Ad hoc Group of the States Parties of the BTWC to strengthen the convention by a protocol, including possible verification measures. India maintains that these measures should be non-discriminatory and avoid any negative impact on scientific research, international cooperation, and industrial development.
Anti-Personnel Landmines (APLS)
India is fully committed to the eventual elimination of anti-personnel landmines and the achievement of the objective of a nondiscriminatory and universal ban on APLs. A beginning can be made with a ban on export and transfer of APLs, that would enjoy an international consensus, and by addressing humanitarian concerns and legitimate defence requirements of states. India is sensitive to the humanitarian aspects of the landmine crisis and the need for a strong international response. Aware that APLs have been used indiscriminately in conflicts, not of an international nature, India has called for a ban on their use in all internal conflicts. India follows a conscious policy of not exporting APLs. India has also been contributing to UN de-mining efforts since the Congo peacekeeping operations in 1963. An officer of the Indian Army is presently deployed with the UN Mine Action Centre in Bosnia. India is presently in the process of ratifying amended Protocol II of the 1980 Inhumane Weapons Convention (CCW), which deals with anti-personnel landmines. India stands ready to negotiate a ban on the export and transfer of landmines in the Conference on Disarmament.
Multiple Choice Question
Consider the following Statements
- India became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957.
- APSARA was the first Nuclear Research Reactor in India and also Asia. It was commissioned by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1956.
- APSARA has also been instrumental in studies in basic sciences such as neutron scattering, neutron activation analysis, and neutron and gamma-ray emission studies. This has aided in the characterization of materials and forensic investigations.
- The Wassenaar Arrangement is seen as a successor to the former Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM).
Choose the correct answer from the below-given options
A) All the above-given statements are true.
B) None of the above-given statements are true.
C) Only Statements 1,2 and 3 are true
D) Only Statements 1,2 and 4 are true.
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